Aetobatus narinari

(Euphrasen, 1790)

Spotted eagle ray
Classification: Elasmobranchii Myliobatiformes Aetobatidae

Reference of the original description
Euphrasen, B.A. (1790)
Raja (Narinari). Kongliga Vetenskaps Akademiens nya Handlingar, Stockholm, 11(for 1790): 217–219, Pl. 10

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Aetobates narinari, Aetobatis cf. narinari, Aetobatis latirostris, Aetobatis narinari, Aetobatus aff. narinari, Aetobatus cf. narinari, Aetobatus latirostris, Aetobatus narinae, Myliobatis narinari, Raja narinari, Stoasodon narinari

Aetobatus narinari
XXXX: No types known;
Aetobatis latirostris
Holotype: MNHN: 2349;

Description :

Citation: Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras,, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 04/2024

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Aetobatus narinari (MNHN A7948, female 420 mm DW, preserved): A. dorsal view; B. ventral view. In: White, W.T. & Last, P.R. & Naylor, G.J.P. & Jensen, K. & CAIRA, J.N. (2010): Clarification of Aetobatus ocellatus (Kuhl, 1823) as a valid species, and a comparison with Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790) (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae). CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper, 32: 141-164
Common names
deu \(T\) Gefleckter Adlerrochen, spa Chucho, spa Chucho pintado, spa Gavilan pintado, spa Obispo, spa Raya, spa Raya aguila, spa Raya gavilán, spa Raya murciélago moteada, spa Raya pico de pato, spa Wakawa, fra \(T\) Aigle de mer léopard, fra \(T\) Aigle de mer tacheté, fra \(T\) Aigle de mer tachetée, fra \(T\) Raie chauve-souris, fra \(T\) Raie léopard, fra \(T\) Raie noire, eng Bishop ray, eng Bonnet skate, eng Duckbil ray, eng Duckbill eagle-ray, eng Duckbill ray, eng Eagle ray, eng Flying ray, eng Lady ray, eng Leopard ray, eng Mottled eagle ray, eng Skate, eng Spotted bonnetray, eng Spotted duckbill ray, eng Spotted eagle ray, eng Spotted eagleray, eng Spotted edgle-ray, eng Spotted stingray, eng Spotted whipray, eng Spotted-eagle ray, eng Sunfish, eng Whip, eng Whip ray, eng White-spotted eagle ray, eng Whitespotted eagle ray, por Ajeru, por Ajuru, por Arraia, por Arraia-morcego, por Arraia-pintada, por Cação anjo, por Narinari, por Papagaio, por Pintada, por Raia-chita, por Raia-leopardo, por Raia-pintada, por Ratau ponteado, por Ratão-leopardo, por Ratão-pintado

Short Description
An eagleray with a long snout, flat and rounded like a duck"quot;s bill, a thick head, and a pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners, and no caudal fin; jaws usually with single row of flat, chevron-shaped teeth [536]. Each tooth a crescent-shaped plate joined into a band [17659]. Numerous white spots on black or bluish disc; white below [536]. Long whiplike tail, with a long spine near the base, behind small dorsal fin. No spines on disk [17658].

Western Atlantic: North Carolina (summer) and Florida, USA and Bermuda to southern Brazil. Throughout Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean, including Antilles [17659]. Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola (Ref. 4440). Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa to Hawaii, north to Japan, south to Australia (Ref. 9862). Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Puerto Pizarro, Peru and the Galapagos Islands [455]. There may be more than one species of spotted Aetobatus (Ref. 9862). Source:

Human uses
fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures [733]. Bears up to 4 young [1388] (Ref. 5578, 37816). Width at birth 17-35 cm (Ref. 37816). According to Uchida et al (1990) (Ref. 51119) "quot;the male chases the female in mid water, then nibbles on her dorsal surface. The female stops swimming to begin copulation. The male bites the female on a pectoral fin and bends one clasper forward, then attempts an abdomen to abdomen copulation with either clasper, usually mid-water"quot; (Ref. 49562). Copulation lasted for 20 seconds to 1 minute (Ref. 49562). Commonly found in shallow inshore waters such as bays and coral reefs but may cross oceanic basins (Ref. 9862). Benthopelagic, found near land at 1-60 m [17640]. Sometimes enters estuaries [1388]. Swims close to the surface, occasionally leaping out of the water, or close to the bottom [7176]. Frequently forming large schools during the non-breeding season [17658]. Feeds mainly on bivalves but also eats shrimps, crabs, octopus and worms, whelks, and small fishes (Ref. 9862). A carnivore [17641].

Size / Weight / Age
330 cm WD (male/unsexed; [2539]); max. published weight: 230.0 kg [17658]

reef-associated; amphidromous [17660]; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 9710), usually 1 - ? m (Ref. 55257)

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
  • Eimeria southwelli Halawani, 1930 [32027]

  • Ascaridia sp. [17190]
  • Echinocephalus aetobati Maccallum, 1921 [16352]
  • Echinocephalus overstreeti Deardorff & Ko, 1983 [7404]
  • Echinocephalus sinensis Ko, 1975 [7404]
  • Echinocephalus striatus Monticelli, 1889 [17156]
  • Neoterranova scoliodontis (Baylis, 1931) [7404]
  • Philonema sp. [28508]

  • Eudactylina hornbosteli Deets, 1994 (nomen nudum) [15305] [27172]
  • Euryphorus suarezi Morales-Serna, Rodríguez-Santiago & Gómez, 2016 [23664]
  • Pupulina mantensis Cruz-Quintana, Caña-Bozada, Suárez-Morales & Santana-Piñeros, 2018 [26422]

  • Excorallana tricornis (Hansen, 1890) [23898]
  • Gnathia aureola Stebbing, 1900 [23898]
  • Gnathia maculosa Ota & Hirose, 2009 [22155]
  • Gnathia nubila Ota & Hirose, 2009 [21221] [22155]
  • Gnathia teruyukiae Ota, 2011 [22155]
  • Gnathia trimaculata Coetzee, Smit, Grutter & Davies, 2009 [17188] [22155]
  • Praniza viridonitens [23898]