Dalatias licha

(Bonnaterre, 1788)


Kitefin shark
Classification: Elasmobranchii Squaliformes Dalatiidae

Reference of the original description
Bonnaterre, J.P. (1788)
Ichthyologie. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Paris, 215 p., pl. A–B + 1–100.

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Centrina bassanii, Dalatias bassanii, Dalatias brevipinnis, Dalatias cf. licha, Dalatias lica, Dalatias lichia, Dalatias phillippsi, Dalatias sparophagus, Dalatias tachiensis, Isistius acutus, Pseudoscymnus boshuensis, Scimnus phillippsi, Scymnorhinus brevipinnis, Scymnorhinus licha, Scymnorhinus lichia, Scymnorhinus phillippsi, Scymnus acutus, Scymnus licha, Scymnus lichia, Scymnus majori, Scymnus nicaeensis, Scymnus vulgaris, Scymnus (Scymnus) lichia, Squalus americanus, Squalus licha, Squalus nicaeensis, Squalus nicensis, Squalus scymnus

Types
Dalatias licha

Dalatias tachiensis
Holotype: NTUM: 7234001;
Pseudoscymnus boshuensis
Holotype: SU: 29535
Scymnorhinus brevipinnis
Holotype: SAIAB: 27;
Scymnorhinus phillippsi
Holotype: AMS: E.3702; Paratype: AMS: E.5532; AMS: I.12876; AMS: I.12875; AMS: I.12875.001;
Squalus nicaeensis
Syntype: MNHN: B-0842


Description :


Citation: Dalatias licha (Bonnaterre, 1788): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 07/2022

Please send your images of "Dalatias licha" to info@shark-references.com

Dalatias licha (Bonnaterre, 1788), Pico, Azores, Portugal, found at 20.08.14 and conserved, the voucher is at ZSM (1703-PRT-2013-0016) © Jeremy Hübner
Common names
deu \(T\) Darkie Charlie, deu \(T\) Dunkler Hai, deu \(T\) Schokoladenhai, spa Carocho, spa Gata, spa Gata tramolla, spa Lija, spa Lija negra, fra \(T\) Squale liche, eng Black shark, eng Darkie charlie, eng Kitefin shark, eng Kitefm Shark, eng Seal shark, ita Cani monicu, ita Diavolo, ita Diavulu di funnu, ita Naire, ita Neigra, ita Paddottula, ita Stire verde, ita Zegrine, ita Zigrino, ita Zigrino negro, por Carocho, por Gata, por Gata-lixa, por Gato, por Lixa-de-pau, por Negra, por Pailona, por Peixelim, por Trabolha, Murruna sewda (malta)

Short Description
Description after Ebert, 2013 [19900]: Diagnostic Features: Anterior nasal flaps short, not expanded into barbels; snout broadly conical, rounded, and short, length much less than distance from mouth to pectoral–fin origins and about 1/4 of head length; gill openings moderately broad and about equally wide; lips very thick, fringed or pleated, not suctorial. Both dorsal fins without spines; first dorsal–fin origin somewhat behind free rear tips of pectoral fins, first dorsal–fin insertion well anterior to pelvic–fin origins, closer to pectoral–fin bases than pelvic fins; second dorsal–fin origin about over middle of pelvic–fin bases; second dorsal fin only slightly larger than first, its base less than 1.5 times first dorsal–fin base; pectoral fins with short, broadly rounded free rear tips, not broadly lobate or acute and elongated; caudal fin asymmetrical, not paddle–shaped, upper lobe long, lower lobe very short or virtually absent, subterminal notch well–developed. No precaudal pits or lateral keels on caudal peduncle. Dermal denticles with low flat, ridged, unicuspid crowns, not pedicellate. Cloaca is without a luminous gland. Vertebral counts: total vertebral counts 78 to 85, precaudal vertebral counts 47 to 55. Colour: greyish to black or blackish brown, sometimes violet with black spots.
Field Marks: A moderate–sized, short– and blunt–snouted shark with two almost equal–sized spineless dorsal fins, no anal fin, papillose thick lips, small slender–cusped upper teeth and very large lower teeth with erect triangular serrated cusps and distal blades, first dorsal fin on back with its origin behind the pectoral–fin rear tips and its base closer to the pectoral–fin base than the pelvic fins, and caudal fin with the ventral lobe not expanded.

Distribution
Western Atlantic: Georges Bank and northern Gulf of Mexico. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland [20065], Scotland, and Irish Atlantic slope to Morocco, western Mediterranean, Madeira to Cameroon. Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique and South Africa. Western Pacific: Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. Central Pacific: Hawaii. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species

Biology
Ovoviviparous [518]. 10-20 young born at 30-42 cm [578]; 10-16 young born at 30 cm TL [2539]. Distinct pairing with embrace [17086]. Found on the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 75154). Feeds on fish and benthic organisms (Ref. 568).

Size / Weight / Age
182 cm TL (male/unsexed; [20048]); TL (mature): male: ~100 cm, female: ~120 cm; TL (birth): 30-40 cm [19900]

Habitat
bathydemersal; marine; depth range 37 - 1800 m [518], usually 200 - 1800 m [518]

Dentition
teeth very different in upper and lower jaws, uppers small, with narrow, hooked, needle–shaped cusps and no cusplets, lowers very large, bladelike, interlocked, with broad, erect, triangular cusps, small distal blades, and serrated edges; tooth row counts 16 to 21 upper jaw, 17 to 20 lower jaw tooth [19900]; formula (upper/lower): 16-21/17-20 [17836];

copyright by: Imaging and Analysis Centre, Natural History Museum


Links: SEM-images of teeth

Remarks
shark-references Species-ID=1718; link to 3D Model

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Monogenea
  • Septitrema lichae Kheddam, Chisholm & Tazerouti, 2020 [28981]
  • Squalonchocotyle euzeti Kheddam, Justine & Tazerouti, 2016 [24914]

Cestoda
Trematoda
  • Otodistomum veliporum (Creplin, 1837) Stafford, 1904 [16602] [26577]

Nematoda