NEWSLETTER 07/2022 18.07.2022

Please acknowledge use of the database www.shark-references.com in your publications, and cite: 

Pollerspöck, J. & Straube, N. 2022, Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali), www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2022

New open access paper co-authored by Dr. Straube, team shark-references!

Agne, S. & Naylor, G.J.P. & Preick, M. & Yang, L. & Thiel, R. & Weigmann, S. & Paijmans, J.L.A. & Barlow, A. & Hofreiter, M. & Straube, N. 2022: Taxonomic Identification of Two Poorly Known Lantern Shark Species Based on Mitochondrial DNA From Wet-Collection Paratypes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 10, Article fevo.2022.910009

Etmopteridae (lantern sharks) is the most species-rich family of sharks, comprising more than 50 species. Many species are described from few individuals, and re-collection of specimens is often hindered by the remoteness of their sampling sites. For taxonomic studies, comparative morphological analysis of type specimens housed in natural history collections has been the main source of evidence. In contrast, DNA sequence information has rarely been used. Most lantern shark collection specimens, including the types, were formalin fixed before long-term storage in ethanol solutions. The DNA damage caused by both fixation and preservation of specimens has excluded these specimens from DNA sequence-based phylogenetic analyses so far. However, recent advances in the field of ancient DNA have allowed recovery of wet-collection specimen DNA sequence data. Here we analyse archival mitochondrial DNA sequences, obtained using ancient DNA approaches, of two wet-collection lantern shark paratype specimens, namely Etmopterus litvinovi and E. pycnolepis, for which the type series represent the only known individuals. Target capture of mitochondrial markers from single-stranded DNA libraries allows for phylogenetic placement of both species. Our results suggest synonymy of E. benchleyi with E. litvinovi but support the species status of E. pycnolepis. This revised taxonomy is helpful for future conservation and management efforts, as our results indicate a larger distribution range of E. litvinovi. This study further demonstrates the importance of wet-collection type specimens as genetic resource for taxonomic research.


New open  access paper co-authord by Team Shark-references!
Jeremy McCormack, Michael L. Griffiths, Sora L. Kim, Kenshu Shimada, Molly Karnes, Harry Maisch, Sarah Pederzani, Nicolas Bourgon, Klervia Jaouen, Martin A. Becker, Niels Jöns, Guy Sisma-Ventura, Nicolas Straube, Jürgen Pollerspöck, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Robert A. EagleThomas Tütken (2022): Trophic position of Otodus megalodon and great white sharks through time revealed by zinc isotopes. Nature Communications volume 13, Article number: 2980

Diet is a crucial trait of an animal’s lifestyle and ecology. The trophic level of an organism indicates its functional position within an ecosystem and holds significance for its ecology and evolution. Here, we demonstrate the use of zinc isotopes (δ66Zn) to geochemically assess the trophic level in diverse extant and extinct sharks, including the Neogene megatooth shark (Otodus megalodon) and the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). We reveal that dietary δ66Zn signatures are preserved in fossil shark tooth enameloid over deep geologic time and are robust recorders of each species’ trophic level. We observe significant δ66Zn differences among the Otodus and Carcharodon populations implying dietary shifts throughout the Neogene in both genera. Notably, Early Pliocene sympatric C. carcharias and O. megalodon appear to have occupied a similar mean trophic level, a finding that may hold clues to the extinction of the gigantic Neogene megatooth shark.

download via research gate or Nature communications



We started to change our old (and unique!) citation style to adapt to the APA citation style (for information please see: https://www.mendeley.com/guides/apa-citation-guide) to make the usage of references listed in shark references easier and more compatible with a widely accepted reference style adopted by several international scientific journals. The transition is ongoing, so far 24643 (last month: 22132) references are changed.



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New Images

Many thanks to the following people for providing images:

Frederik Mollen, Elasmobranch Research, Belgium for images of Fontitrygon margaritella (Compagno & Roberts, 1984)

Adam Anderson,  for images of
Hessinodon wardi Cappetta, Morrison & Adnet, 2019
Paraisurus compressus Sokolov, 1978
Paraisurus macrorhiza (Pictet & Campiche, 1858)

Bianca de Sousa Rangel for images of Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre, 1788)

Thierry Salmon for an image of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758)

Toño Maño for images of Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810)

Bryan Huerta for an image of
Hypanus say (Lesueur, 1817)
Hypanus americanus (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928)

Jason C. Seitz for an image of
Hypanus say (Lesueur, 1817)
Hypanus americanus (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928)

Ryo Misawa for images of Okamejei panayensis Misawa & Babaran & Motomura, 2022


Missing papers:

Many thanks to all friends of shark-references, who sent us some missing papers last month!

Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project.

At the moment we are looking for some of the following papers:

Extinct Chondrichthyes:

Numano, M. (1993) Some Neogene shark-teeth from Mogami area, Yamagata Prefecture. Applied Geology of Yamagata, 13: 32–49

Extant Chondrichthyes:

Marini, T.L.  (1935) Nota sobre una raya argentina. Physis, 11(40): 503–506

SMITH, J.L.B. (1958) The mystery killer, the new shark Carcharhinus vanrooyeni. Veld & Vlei, 3 (9): 12–14, 28.

GUBANOV, E.P. & SCHLEIB, N.A. (1980) Sharks of the Arabian Gulf. Kuwait Ministry of Public Works, Agracultural Department, Fisheries Division. Sharks of the Arabian Gulf.: 1–69

DOLGANOV, V.N. (1983) Rukovodstvo po opredeleniyu khryashchevykh ryb dal'nevostochnykh morei SSSR i sopredel'nykh vod. [Manual for identification of cartilaginous fishes of Far East seas of USSR and adjacent waters.] TINRO, Vladivostok. Rukovodstvo po opredeleniyu khryashchevykh ryb dal'nevostochnykh morei SSSR i sopredel'nykh vod.: 92 pp.

Please support www.shark-references.com and send missing papers (not listed papers or papers without the info-symbol) to juergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.com or nicolas.straube@shark-references.com



Upcoming Meetings:

11th International Cretaceous Symposium Warsaw, Poland, 2022

August 22-26

Abstract submission deadline
30th April 2022

Early Bird Fees 
15th May 2022

3rd circular with detailed programme 
c. 15th July 2022

Field trip registration deadline  
31st May 2022


37th Annual Scientific Meeting American Elasmobranch Society (AES)
July 27 – 31, 2022 (Dates subject to change)
Spokane, WA, USA
elasmo.org asih.org/meetings
The American Elasmobranch Society is a non-profit organization that seeks to advance the scientific study of living and fossil sharks, skates, rays, and chimaeras, and the promotion of education, conservation, and wise utilization of natural resources. The Society holds annual meetings and presents research reports of interest to professionals and students of elasmobranch biology. Those meetings are held in conjunction with annual meetings of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists each year at rotating North American venues.


5th International Marine ProtectedAreas Congress (IMPAC5)
September 1 – 8, 2022 Vancouver, Canada
International Marine Protected Areas Congresses (IMPAC) are an opportunity for the global community of marine conservation managers and practitioners to exchange knowledge, experience and best practices to strengthen the conservation of marine biodiversity and to protect the natural and cultural heritage of the ocean. IMPAC5 will be jointly hosted by the Host First Nations — Musqueam Indian Band, Squamish Nation, and Tsleil-waututh Nation — together with the Province of British Columbia, the Government of Canada, the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). IMPAC5 is an opportunity to bring together Indigenous peoples and cultures from around the world to embrace a collaborative approach and learn from Indigenous leadership in ocean conservation. Join thousands of marine protected area professionals from around the world to chart a course towards protecting 30% of the ocean by 2030. Learn about traditional marine protection practices and innovative sustainability initiatives from local and international indigenous experts.


Sharks International Conference 2022 (SI2022)
October 10 – 14, 2022 (online virtual conference)
October 20 – 22, 2022 (physical in-person conference)
Valencia, Spain
SI2022 is a hybrid event in October 2022 that will bring together a strong community of people from across the world interested in sharks and rays, all in the name of addressing the challenge of elasmobranch conservation in this Decade of Ocean Science. In association with the European Elasmobranch Association (EEA) and hosted by the Shark Trust, Submon, and Lamna, the event will include five online days (October 10- 14th) featuring enhanced digital content on key themes in shark conservation, leading up to a three-day physical conference in Valencia (October 20th-22nd). The conference is funded by the Save our Seas Foundation and will be based out of L’Oceanogràfic, the largest aquarium in Europe, and streamed live across the world. If you are interested in sharks and rays and want to be a part of the 300+ member community currently shaping SI2022, sign up to the portal at si2022.org. Join this year to be automatically entitled to a 10% discount when tickets become available.




Extant Chondrichthyes:

Misawa, R. & Babaran, R.P. & Motomura, H. (2022): Okamejei panayensis sp. nov., a new skate (Rajiformes: Rajidae) from the Philippines. Ichthyological Research, in press
New species: Okamejei panayensis
Abstract: A new hardnose skate, Okamejei panayensis sp. nov., is described from a single specimen [304 mm in total length (TL), adult male] collected off Iloilo, Panay Island, Philippines (Sulu Sea). The specimen conformed to the genus Okamejei in having a small body (less than 60 cm TL) and short snout (rostral cartilage less than 60% of dorsal head length), the tail with three rows of thorns and the clasper with a funnel. Among congeners, the new species is relatively similar to Okamejei boesemani (Ishihara 1987), Okamejei cairae Last, Fahmi and Ishihara 2010, Okamejei hollandi (Jordan and Richardson 1909), and Okamejei mengae Jeong, Nakabo and Wu 2007, all sharing black flecks scattered on the dorsal disc, and a “W-shaped” distal margin of ventral sensory pores. However, the former is uniquely distinguished by the following combination of characters: a small dark ring near the pectoral-fin insertion (posterior ocellus) absent (usually present in O. boesemani and O. cairae, sometimes present in O. hollandi); a dark ocellus on the pectoral axil absent (sometimes present in O. boesemani, usually present in O. cairae); black flecks on the dorsal disc surface sparsely scattered (forming patches in O. boesemani and O. cairae, densely scattered in O. hollandi and O. mengae); ventral surface mainly whitish (grayish or pale brown in O. boesemaniO. cairaeO. hollandi, and O. mengae); a shorter snout [preorbital snout length 13.7% TL (14.3–17.5% in O. boesemani, 14.5–17.2% in O. cairae, 13.9–16.1% in O. hollandi, 17.6% in O. mengae); preoral snout length 14.3% TL (14.3–18.2% in O. boesemani, 15.0–17.9% in O. cairae, 16.0–18.5% in O. hollandi, 18.0% in O. mengae); prenarial snout length 11.3% TL (12.0–14.7% in O. boesemani, 11.9–14.5% in O. cairae, 12.2–14.2% in O. hollandi, 14.9% in O. mengae)]; orbit diameter 127.4% of interorbital width (79.8–117.8% in O. boesemani, 86.5–134.3% in O. cairae, 93.3–120.7% in O. hollandi, 108.6% in O. mengae); interspiracular width 5.9% TL (6.0–7.2% in O. boesemani, 6.0–7.4% in O. cairae, 6.1–7.0% in O. hollandi, 6.4% in O. mengae); and 75 or 76 pectoral-fin radials (80–83 in O. boesemani, 80 or 81 in O. cairae, 79–85 in O. hollandi, 96 in O. mengae). In addition, mtDNA analyses supported the genetic uniqueness of the new species.

Extinct Chondrichthyes:
no taxonomic news this month

Ruiz-Escobar, F. & Torres-Carrera, G. & Ramos-Sánchez, M. & García-Prieto, L. & Mendoza-Garfias, B. & Oceguera-Figueroa, A. (2022): Peruanocotyle pelagica n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae), Parasite of the Pacific Cownose Ray Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann and Jenkins, 1891 (Batoidea: Rhinopteridae) from the Southern Mexican Pacific Ocean. Journal of Parasitology, 108(3), 238–244
New species: Peruanocotyle pelagica
AbstractPeruanocotyle pelagica n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from the wall of the pharyngeal cavity of the Pacific cownose ray Rhinoptera steindachneri offshore Oaxaca and Guerrero, Mexico. The new species is distinguished from Peruanocotyle chisholmae by its anchors, which include a slender guard that curves towards the tip of the blade and which lack an accessory piece, morphological differences of the seminal vesicle, the lack of a male copulatory organ accessory piece and a greater number of spines, and an unsclerotized vagina. Molecular data of Peruanocotyle pelagica were generated to place the phylogenetic position of the genus within Monocotylidae.
Caira, J.N. & Jensen, K. (2022): Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 'tetraphyllidean' Clade 3 (Cestoda) based on new material from orectolobiform sharks in Australia and Taiwan. Folia Parasitologica, 69, Article 10
New species: Ambitalveolus costelloae, Ambitalveolus kempi, Ambitalveolus
Abstract: In an effort to expand knowledge of Clade 3-one of the ten clades that compose the non-monophyletic order 'Tetraphyllidea' all current members of which parasitise orectolobiform sharks-we targeted species of orectolobiform sharks that had not previously been examined for 'tetraphyllidean' cestodes. That work led to the discovery of three new species off Australia and Taiwan. Ambitalveolus gen. n. was erected to accommodate these species. Ambitalveolus costelloae gen. n. et sp. n., Ambitalveolus kempi sp. n., and Ambitalveolus penghuensis sp. n. differ from one another in scolex size, genital pore position, and number of marginal loculi, proglottids, and testes. Among 'tetraphyllideans', the new genus most closely resembles the two other genera in Clade 3. It differs from Carpobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 in lacking anterior and posterior flap-like extensions of its bothridia; instead, its bothridia are essentially circular. It differs from Caulopatera Cutmore, Bennett et Cribb, 2010 in that its vitelline follicles are in two lateral bands, rather than circum-medullary, and in that its bothridia bear, rather than lack, conspicuous marginal loculi. A key to the three genera in Clade 3 is provided. A phylogenetic analysis including new sequence data for one of the three new species of Ambitalveolus gen. n., the only species of Caulopatera, and all four described species and one undescribed species of Carpobothrium supports previously hypothesised close affinities between Caulopatera and Carpobothrium, with the new genus as their sister group. This is the first report of 'tetraphyllidean' cestodes from the orectolobiform shark family Brachaeluridae Applegate. The association of the new species with orectolobiform sharks is consistent with those of the other members of Clade 3. However, whereas species of Carpobothrium and Caulopatera parasitise members of the hemiscylliid genus Chiloscyllium Müller et Henle, species of Amitalveolus gen. n. parasitise members of the Brachaeluridae and Orectolobidae Gill.


PLEASE send your new papers to
juergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.com or 

Latest Research Articles

Extant Chondrichthyes:
Agne, S. & Naylor, G.J.P. & Preick, M. & Yang, L. & Thiel, R. & Weigmann, S. & Paijmans, J.L.A. & Barlow, A. & Hofreiter, M. & Straube, N. (2022): Taxonomic Identification of Two Poorly Known Lantern Shark Species Based on Mitochondrial DNA From Wet-Collection Paratypes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 10, Article fevo.2022.910009 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2022.910009
Anderson, J.M. & Rex, P.T. & Maloney, K. & Johnston, M. & Verbeck, D. & Allen, N. & Holland, K. (2022): Observations of a species-record deep dive by a central Pacific female scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini). Journal of Fish Biology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.15115
Barnett, A. & Fitzpatrick, R. & Bradley, M. & Miller, I. & Sheaves, M. & Chin, A. & Smith, B. & Diedrich, A. & Yick, J.L. & Lubitz, N. & Crook, K. & Mattone, C. & Bennett, M.B. & Wojtach, L. & Abrantes, K. (2022): Scientific response to a cluster of shark bites. People and Nature, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10337
Basusta, N. & Basusta, A. & Cicek, E. & Cicia, A.M. & Sulikowski, J.A. (2022): First Estimates of Age and Growth of the Lusitanian Cownose Ray (Rhinoptera marginata) from the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10(5), Article 685 https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050685
Bergmann, M. & Guttridge, T.L. & Smukall, M.J. & Adams, V.M. & Bond, M.E. & Burke, P.J. & Fuentes, M. & Heinrich, D.D.U. & Huveneers, C. & Gruber, S.H. & Papastamatiou, Y.P. (2022): Using movement models and systematic conservation planning to inform marine protected area design for a multi-species predator community. Biological Conservation, 266, Article 109469 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109469
Braccini, M. & Hesp, A. & Walker, T.I. (2022): Gillnet selectivity for non-targeted shark species in temperate Australia. Fisheries Management and Ecology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fme.12570
Calle-Moran, M.D. & Hernandez-Tellez, A.R. & Tiban-Vivar, E.R. & Intriago-Vera, Y.E. & Del Valle-Coello, I.G. & Loor-Jama, B.C. & Ganchozo-Lopez, A.R. (2022): Diet composition and feeding habits of the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai. Environmental Biology of Fishes, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10641-022-01277-x
Ćetković, I. & Pešić, A. & Ikica, Z. & Milošević, D. & Mrdak, D. (2022): Occurrence of rare and endangered elasmobranchs in by-catch of Montenegrin fisheries (South-Eastern Adriatic Sea). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 63, 247–256   https://dx.doi.org/10.21411/CBM.A.37B316BB
Chandrasekaran, K. & Dhinakarasamy, I. & Jayavel, S. & Rajendran, T. & Bhoopathy, S. & Gopal, D. & Ramalingam, K. & Khan, S.A. (2022): Complete sequence and characterization of the Mobula tarapacana (Sicklefin Devilray) mitochondrial genome and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of King Saud University Science, 34(3), Article 101909  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2022.101909
Christensen, J.M. (2022): Phylogeny of Somniosus sleeper sharks: insights from newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes. Master Thesis, UiT The Arctic University of Norway
Cutler, C.P. & Mainer, S. & Ojo, T. (2022): The aquaporin 8 (AQP8) membrane channel gene is present in the elasmobranch dogfish (Squalus acanthias) genome and is expressed in brain but not in gill, kidney or intestine. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 260, Article 110730 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2022.110730
del Moral-Flores, L.F. & Paleo-Delgado, S. & Ballesteros-Hernández, S. & Galván-Magaña, F. (2022): First record of Squalus clarkae (Elasmobranchii: Squalidae) in the Southwest Gulf of Mexico. Cybium, 46(1): 45–48 j  https://dx.doi.org/10.26028/cybium/2022-461-007
Diez, G. & Ruiz, J. & Salgado, A. (2022): Record of three specimens of megamouth sharks - Megachasma pelagios - in tropical tuna purse seine fisheries in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0025315422000224
Ehemann, N. & Acosta-Rodríguez, E. & Tagliafico, A. & Pelletier, N. & Stevens, G. (2022): Manta and devil ray species occurrence and distribution in Venezuela, assessed through fishery landings and citizen science data. Journal of Fish Biology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.15088
Elston, C. & Cowley, P.D. & von Brandis, R.G. & Lea, J. (2022): Stingray Habitat Use Is Dynamically Influenced by Temperature and Tides. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, Article 754404 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.754404
Fong, V. & Hoffmann, S.L. & Pate, J.H. (2022): Using Drones to Assess Volitional Swimming Kinematics of Manta Ray Behaviors in the Wild. Drones, 6(5), Article 111 https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/drones6050111
Gausmann, P. & Hasan, V. (2022): New inland records of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas from Sumatra, Indonesia. Marine and Fishery Sciences 35(3), in press https://dx.doi.org/10.47193/mafis.3532022010905
González-Pestana, A. (2022): Catch composition of mobulid rays (Mobula spp.) in northern Peru reveals a potential nursery area for M. mobular. Environmental Biology of Fishes, in press https://dx.doi.org/1007/s10641-022-01301-0
González-Pestana, A. & Alfaro-Shigueto, J. & Mangel, J.C. (2022): A review of high trophic predator-prey relationships in the pelagic Northern Humboldt system, with a focus on anchovetas. Fisheries Research, 253, Article 106386 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2022.106386
Guang, G. & Zhizhong, X. & Yuting, M. & Xiao, C. & Yongshuang, X. & Jun, L. (2022): How the Skate Embryo Develops: A Fine Developmental Timeline of Kong Skate Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle, 1841). Frontiers in Marine Science, 9, Article 831926 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.831926
Haque, A.B. & Cavanagh, R.D. & Spaet, J.L.Y. (2022): Fishers' tales—Impact of artisanal fisheries on threatened sharks and rays in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Conservation Science and Practice, in press, e12704 https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/csp2.12704
Heinrich, D.D.U. & Huveneers, C. & Houslay, T.M. & Dhellemmes, F. & Brown, C. (2022): Shark habituation to a food-related olfactory cue. Animal Behaviour, 187, 147–165 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2022.03.003
Jaksons, R. & Bell, P. & Jaksons, P. & Cook, D. (2022): Fish biodiversity and inferred abundance in a highly valued coastal temperate environment: the inner Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand. Marine and Freshwater Research, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1071/mf21247
Janardhanam, M. & Sivakumar, P. & Srinivasan, G. & Sivakumar, R. & Marcus, P.N. & Balasubramaniam, S. & Rajamanickam, K. & Raman, T. & Singaram, G. & Harikrishnan, T. (2022): Microplastics in Demersal Sharks From the Southeast Indian Coastal Region. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9, Article 914391 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.914391
Jorgensen, S.J. & Micheli, F. & White, T.D. & Van Houtan, K.S. & Alfaro-Shigueto, J. & Andrzejaczek, S. & Arnoldi, N.S. & Baum, J.K. & Block, B. & Britten, G.L. & Butner, C. & Caballero, S. & Cardenosa, D. & Chapple, T.K. & Clarke, S. & Cortes, E. & Dulvy, N.K. & Fowler, S. & Gallagher, A.J. & Gilman, E. & Godley, B.J. & Graham, R.T. & Hammerschlag, N. & Harry, A.V. & Heithaus, M.R. & Hutchinson, M. & Huveneers, C. & Lowe, C.G. & Lucifora, L.O. & MacKeracher, T. & Mangel, J.C. & Martins, A.P.B. & McCauley, D.J. & McClenachan, L. & Mull, C. & Natanson, L.J. & Pauly, D. & Pazmino, D.A. & Pistevos, J.C.A. & Queiroz, N. & Roff, G. & Shea, B.D. & Simpfendorfer, C.A. & Sims, D.W. & Ward-Paige, C. & Worm, B. & Ferretti, F. (2022): Emergent research and priorities for shark and ray conservation. Endangered Species Research, 47, 171–203 https://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr01169
Knuckey, J.D.S. & Ebert, D.A. (2022): A taxonomic revision of Northeast Pacific softnose skates (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae: Bathyraja Ishiyama). Zootaxa, 5142(1), 1–89 j  https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5142.1.1
Kolmann, M.A. & Marques, F.P.L. & Weaver, J.C. & Dean, M.N. & Fontenelle, J.P. & Lovejoy, N.R. (2022): Ecological and Phenotypic Diversification after a Continental Invasion in Neotropical Freshwater Stingrays. Integrative and Comparative Biology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icac019
Kousteni, V. & Anastasiadis, A. & Bariche, M. & Battaglia, P. & Bonifazi, A. & Cetkovic, I. & Chimienti, G. & Colombo, M. & Constantinou, C. & Corsini-Foka, M. & Dalyan, C. & Dogrammatzi, A. & Domenichetti, F. & El Zrelli, R. & Fernandez-Alias, A. & Kampouris, T.E. & Kesici, N.B. & Kupper, F.C. & Lipej, L. & Mancini, E. & Manunza, B. & Marcos, C. & Mavric, B. & Mavruk, S. & Mutlu, E. & Ozvarol, Y. & Papadimitriou, E. & Pesic, A. & Perez-Ruzafa, A. & Pey, A. & Poursanidis, D. & Rizgalla, J. & Samaha, Z. & Stipa, M.G. & Trkov, D. & Tureli, C. & Ventura, P. & Yacoubi, L. & Zacchetti, L. & Zava, B. (2022): New records of rare species in the Mediterranean Sea (May 2022). Mediterranean Marine Science, 23(3), 417–446 https://dx.doi.org/10.12681/mms.28372
Kulka, D.W. & Sulikowski, J.A. & Cotton, C.F. (2022): Spatial ecology of black dogfish (Centroscyllium fabricii) in deep waters off Canada: first record of a nursery, pupping ground and long-distance migration for a deepwater demersal shark. Marine and Freshwater Research, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF22067
Lassauce, H. & Dudgeon, C.L. & Armstrong, A.J. & Wantiez, L. & Carroll, E.L. (2022): Evidence of fine-scale genetic structure for reef manta rays Mobula alfredi in New Caledonia. Endangered Species Research, 47, 249–264 https://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr01178
Latour, R.J. & Gartland, J. & Peterson, C.D. (2022): Ontogenetic niche structure and partitioning of immature sandbar sharks within the Chesapeake Bay nursery. Marine Biology, 169(6), Article 76 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-022-04066-3
Lavender, E. & Aleynik, D. & Dodd, J. & Illian, J. & James, M. & Wright, P.J. & Smout, S. & Thorburn, J. (2022): Behavioural Responses of a Large, Benthic Elasmobranch to Catch-and-Release Angling. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9, Article 864344 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.864344
Li, W. & Ura, K. & Takagi, Y. (2022): Industrial application of fish cartilaginous tissues. Current Research in Food Science, 5, 698–709 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crfs.2022.04.001
Lin, Y. & Li, J. & Wang, Z.H. & Zhang, S.Y. & Wang, K. & Li, X.M. (2022): A Comparison of Fish Diversity in Rocky Reef Habitats by Multi-Mesh Gillnets and Environmental DNA Metabarcoding. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 10, Article 874558 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2022.874558
MacíasCuyare, M. & Oddone, M.C. (2022): Morphological pattern of the dermal denticles of the Southern sawtail catshark Galeus mincaronei Soto, 2001. Journal of Morphology, in press j  https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.21493
Madrigal-Mora, S. & Eisele, M.H. & Espinoza, M. (2022): Do reef fish assemblages benefit from a marine protected area in the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica? Environmental Biology of Fishes, 105(5), 541–559 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10641-022-01260-6
McClusky, L.M. (2022): Several routes of cell death to secondary necrosis in the elasmobranch testis. Apoptosis, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-022-01733-0
McIvor, A.J. & Spaet, J.L.Y. & Williams, C.T. & Berumen, M.L. (2022): Unoccupied aerial video (UAV) surveys as alternatives to BRUV surveys for monitoring elasmobranch species in coastal waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsac098
Medeiros, A.M. & Bersano, J.G.F. & Ari, C. & Monteiro, E.L.D. (2022): Endangered mobulids within sustainable use protected areas of southeastern Brazil: occurrence, fisheries impact, and a new prey item. Environmental Biology of Fishes, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10641-022-01282-0
Misawa, R. & Babaran, R.P. & Motomura, H. (2022): Okamejei panayensis sp. nov., a new skate (Rajiformes: Rajidae) from the Philippines. Ichthyological Research, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10228-022-00874-1
Molina-Salgado, P. & González-Pestana, A. & Alfaro-Shigueto, J. & Ebert, D.A. (2022): Description of egg capsules of Rasptail Skate Rostroraja velezi (Chondrichthyes: Rajiformes: Rajidae) from northern Peru. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 105(5), 663–668 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10641-022-01271-3
Moore, A.B.M. & Hiddink, J.G. (2022): Identifying critical habitat with archives: 275-year-old naturalist's notes provide high-resolution spatial evidence of long-term core habitat for a critically endangered shark. Biological Conservation, 272, Article 109621 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109621
Moron-Elorza, P. & Canizares-Cooz, D. & Rojo-Solis, C. & Alvaro-Alvarez, T. & Valls-Torres, M. & Garcia-Parraga, D. & Encinas, T. (2022): Pharmacokinetics of the Anti-Inflammatory Drug Meloxicam after Single 1.5 mg/kg Intramuscular Administration to Undulate Skates (Raja undulata). Veterinary Sciences, 9(5), Article 216 https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9050216
Mucientes, G. & Vedor, M. & Sims, D.W. & Queiroz, N. (2022): Unreported discards of internationally protected pelagic sharks in a global fishing hotspot are potentially large. Biological Conservation, 269, Article 109534 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109534
Niella, Y. & Raoult, V. & Gaston, T. & Goodman, K. & Harcourt, R. & Peddemors, V. & Smoothey, A.F. (2022): Reliance of young sharks on threatened estuarine habitats for nutrition implies susceptibility to climate change. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 268, Article 107790 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2022.107790
O'Connell, C.P. & Crews, J. & King, A. & Gressle, J. (2022): Evaluating the Shark Deterrent Effects of the Novel Exclusion Barrier in Comparison to the Rigorously Tested Sharksafe Barrier Technology. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10(5), Article 634 https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050634
Ontomwa, M.B. & Kimani, E.N. & Fulanda, B.M. & Nyamweya, C.S. (2022): Evaluation of the Kenya long line pelagic fishery: Temporal variation in fishing effort and catch rates. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 52, Article 102320 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2022.102320
Pincinato, R.B.M. & Gasalla, M.A. & Garlock, T. & Anderson, J.L. (2022): Market incentives for shark fisheries. Marine Policy, 139, Article 105031 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2022.105031
Poscai, A.N. & da Silva, J.P.C.B. & Casas, A.L.S. & Lenktaitis, P. & Gadig, O.B.F. (2022): Morphological study of the oral denticles of the porbeagle shark Lamna nasus. Journal of Fish Biology, in press j  https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.15102
Rangel-Morales, J.M. & Rosales-Lopez, L.P. & Diaz-Jaimes, P. & Amezcua-Martinez, F. & Ketchum, J.T. & Hoyos-Padilla, M. & Corgos, A. (2022): Regional philopatry of scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) to nursery areas in the Mexican Pacific. Hydrobiologia, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-022-04880-2
Roberson, L. & Wilcox, C. & Boussarie, G. & Dugan, E. & Garilao, C. & Gonzalez, K. & Green, M. & Kark, S. & Kaschner, K. & Klein, C.J. & Rousseau, Y. & Vallentyne, D. & Watson, J.E.M. & Kiszka, J.J. (2022): Spatially explicit risk assessment of marine megafauna vulnerability to Indian Ocean tuna fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/faf.12676
Rohner, C.A. & Venables, S.K. & Cochran, J.E.M. & Prebble, C.E.M. & Kuguru, B.L. & Berumen, M.L. & Pierce, S.J. (2022): The need for long-term population monitoring of the world's largest fish. Endangered Species Research, 47, 231–248 https://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr01177
Rolim, F.A. & Langlois, T. & Motta, F.D. & de Castro, G.M. & Lester, E. & Abieri, M.L. & Gadig, O.B.F. & de Moura, R.L. (2022): Habitat and Marine Reserve Status Drive Reef Fish Biomass and Functional Diversity in the Largest South Atlantic Coral Reef System (Abrolhos, Brazil). Frontiers in Marine Science, 9, Article 701244 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.701244
Rosales-Vásquez J.I. & Anislado-Tolentino, V. & Irigoyen-Solis, A. & Wakida-Kusunoki, A.T. & Del Moral-Flores, L.F. (2022): First record of Sphyrna gilberti Quattro et al., 2013, on the coast of Campeche, México. Aquatic Research, 5(3), 250–256 https://dx.doi.org/10.3153/AR22024
Ruiz-Jarabo, I. & Paullada-Salmeron, J.A. & Jerez-Cepa, I. & Neto, J.B.G. & Bystriansky, J.S. & Mancera, J.M. (2022): Acute Stress in Lesser-Spotted Catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula Linnaeus, 1758) Promotes Amino Acid Catabolism and Osmoregulatory Imbalances. Animals, 12(9), Article 1192 https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani12091192
Salas-Garzon, Z. & Escobar-Sanchez, O. & Ruelas-Inzunza, J. & Sanchez-Osuna, K. & Corro-Espinosa, D. (2022): Distribution of Hg and Se in Muscle and Liver of the Thornback Guitarfish Platyrhinoidis triseriata from the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-022-03540-4
Scacco, U. & Mancini, E. & Marcucci, F. & Tiralongo, F. (2022): Microplastics in the Deep: Comparing Dietary and Plastic Ingestion Data between Two Mediterranean Bathyal Opportunistic Feeder Species, Galeus melastomus, Rafinesque, 1810 and Coelorinchus caelorhincus (Risso, 1810), through Stomach Content Analysis. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10(5), Article 624 https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050624
Schwanck, T.N. & Delaval, A.N. & Noble, L.R. & Wright, P.J. & Donnan, D.W. & Jones, C.S. (2022): The complete mitochondrial genomes of the flapper skate Dipturus intermedius and the longnose skate Dipturus oxyrinchus. Mitochondrial DNA Part B-Resources, 7(5), 897–899 https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2064248
Seah, Y.G. & Kibat, C. & Hew, S. & Wainwright, B.J. (2022): DNA barcoding of traded shark fins in Peninsular Malaysia. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11160-022-09713-y
Siders, Z.A. & Trotta, L.B. & Caltabellotta, F.P. & Loesser, K.B. & Baiser, B. & Ahrens, R.N.M. (2022): Functional and phylogenetic diversity of sharks in the Northeastern Pacific. Journal of Biogeography, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14383
Smukall, M.J. & Carlson, J. & Kessel, S.T. & Guttridge, T.L. & Dhellemmes, F. & Seitz, A.C. & Gruber, S. (2022): Thirty-five years of tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier relative abundance near Bimini, The Bahamas, and the Southeastern United States with a comparison across jurisdictional bounds. Journal of Fish Biology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.15067
Soekoe, M. & Smale, M.J. & Potts, W.M. (2022): Highly conserved tooth morphology in allopatric elasmobranch populations despite contrasting diets—a case of Triakis megalopterus in southern Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes, in press j  https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10641-022-01288-8
Squadrone, S. & Biancani, B. & Da Rugna, C. & Favaro, L. & Pederiva, S. & Abete, M.C. (2022): Trace and rare earth element bioaccumulation in the spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus stellaris). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20886-8
Stark, G. (2022): Large and expensive brain comes with a short lifespan: The relationship between brain size and longevity among fish taxa. Journal of Fish Biology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.15074
Sureandiran, B. & Sundaramanickam, A. & Karuppasamy, K. (2022): Occurrence of Shortlip Numbfish, Narcine brevilabiata Bessednov, 1966 from Bay of Bengal, Indian Coastal Waters. Thalassas, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41208-022-00441-5
Talwar, B.S. & Anderson, B. & Avalos-Castillo, C.G. & del Pilar Blanco-Parra, M. & Briones, A. & Cardeñosa, D. & Carlson, J.K. & Charvet, P. & Cotton, C.F. & Crysler, Z. & Derrick, D.H. & Heithaus, M.R. & Herman, K.B. & Koubrak, O. & Kulka, D.W. & Kyne, P.M. & Lasso-Alcalá, O.M. & Mejía-Falla, P.A. & Morales-Saldaña, J.M. & Naranjo-Elizondo, B. & Navia, A,F. & Pacoureau, N. & Peréz-Jiménez, J.C. & Pollom, R.A. & Rigby, C.L. & Schneider, E.V.C. & Simpson, N. & Dulvy, N.K. (2022): Extinction risk, reconstructed catches and management of chondrichthyan fishes in the Western Central Atlantic Ocean. Fish and Fisheries, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/faf.12675
Tewfik, A. & Babcock, E.A. & Phillips, M. & Moreira-Ramirez, J.F. & Polanco, F. & Marroquin, J. & Castillo, M. & Gomez, N.A. & McNab, R. (2022): Simple length-based approaches offer guidance for conservation and sustainability actions in two Central American small-scale fisheries. Aquatic Conservation, Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3827
Tolotti, M. & Guillotreau, P. & Forget, F. & Capello, M. & Dagorn, L. (2022): Unintended effects of single-species fisheries management. Environment Development and Sustainability, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10668-022-02432-1
Tserkova, F. & Mihneva, V. & Pavlova, E. & Penchev, P. (2022): Size and sex structure variations of picked dogfish (Squalus acanthias, Linnaeus, 1758) (Chondrichthyes- Elasmobranchii) in the Western Black Sea. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 52, Article 102298 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2022.102298
Wambiji, N. & Kadagi, N.I. & Everett, B.I. & Temple, A.J. & Kiszka, J.J. & Kimani, E. & Berggren, P. (2022): Integrating long-term citizen science data and contemporary artisanal fishery survey data to investigate recreational and small-scale shark fisheries in Kenya. Aquatic Conservation, Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3829
Wang, M.H. & Chen, C.W. & Chen, C.F. & Tsai, W.P. & Dong, C.D. (2022): Assessment of trace metal concentrations in Indian Ocean silky sharks Carcharhinus falciformis and their toxicological concerns. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 178, Article 113571  https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113571
White, W.T. & Guallart, J. & Ebert, D.A. & Naylor, G.J.P. & Mo, A.V. & Cotton, C.F. & Harris, M. & Serena, F. & Iglésias, S.P. (2022): Revision of the genus Centrophorus (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae): Part 3-Redescription of Centrophorus uyato (Rafinesque) with a discussion of its complicated nomenclatural history Zootaxa, 5155(1), 1–51 j  https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5155.1.1
Zemah-Shamir, Z. & Mourier, J. & Ilany, A. & Bigal, E. & Scheinin, A. & Tchernov, D. (2022): Preliminary insights of a mixed-species shark aggregation: a case study of two carcharhinids from the Mediterranean Sea. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 105(5), 623–634 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10641-022-01280-2
Zhao, L.F. & Chen, M.L. & Wang, X.N. & Kang, S.K. & Xue, W.W. & Li, Z.P. (2022): Identification of Anti-TNF alpha VNAR Single Domain Antibodies from Whitespotted Bambooshark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum). Marine Drugs, 20(5), Article 307  https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md20050307

Extinct Chondrichthyes:
Allen, J.G. & Shimada, K. (2022): Fossil vertebrates from a unique marine bonebed of the Upper Cretaceous Smoky Hill Chalk, western Kansas, USA: new insights into the paleoecology of the Niobrara Formation. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2021.2066999
Bernárdez, E. & Rábano, I. (2022): Las primeras ilustraciones de fósiles españoles: nuevas observaciones acerca de las glosopetras de Armstrong (1752) y de Torrubia (1754) [The first illustrations of Spanish fossils: new remarks about the glossopetrae of Armstrong (1752) and Torrubia (1754)]. Geogaceta, 71, 7–10
Corral, J.C. (2021): Campanian sharks, rays and other fossils from a long-gone Basque-Cantabrian sea. Publica, Autor & Editor, Vitoria-Gasteiz, 274 pp. [ISBN: 978-84-09-30406-6]
Godfrey, S.J. & Bohaska, D.J. & Maisey, J. (2022): The report of a rare deformed eagle ray (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) tooth plate from the Neogene of Calvert Cliffs, Maryland, USA. Carnets De Geologie, 22(6), 161–169 https://dx.doi.org/10.2110/carnets.2022.2206
Itano, W.M. (2022): The Palaeozoic genus Psephodus (Chondrichthyes, Cochliodontiformes) and the transition from teeth to tooth plates in holocephalians. Scottish Journal of Geology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1144/sjg2021-016
Kast, E.R. & Griffiths, M.L. & Kim, S.L. & Rao, Z.C. & Shimada, K. & Becker, M.A. & Maisch, H.M. & Eagle, R.A. & Clarke, C.A. & Neumann, A.N. & Karnes, M.E. & Lüdecke, T. & Leichliter, J.N. & Martínez-García, A. & Akhtar, A.A. & Wang, X.T. & Haug, G.H. & Sigman, D.M. (2022): Cenozoic megatooth sharks occupied extremely high trophic positions. Science Advances, 8(25), Article eabl6529 https://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abl6529
Laurito, C.A. & Valerio, A.L. & Calvo, C. (2022): Nuevos registros de Otodontidae Glickman 1964B (Chondrichthyes) para el sur de la Península de Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica [New records of Otodontidae Glickman 1964B (Chondrichthyes) from Southern Nicoya Peninsula, Puntarenas, Costa Rica]. Revista Geológica de América Central, 66, 1–13 https://dx.doi.org/10.15517/rgac.v0i66.49759
Luccisano, V. & Rambert-Natsuaki, M. & Cuny, G. & Amiot, R. & Pouillon, J.-M. & Pradel, A. (2022): Phylogenetic implications of the systematic reassessment of Xenacanthiformes and ‘Ctenacanthiformes’ (Chondrichthyes) neurocrania from the Carboniferous–Permian Autun Basin (France). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14772019.2022.2073279
Pyenson, N.D. & Koch, P.L. (2022): Oh, the shark has such teeth: Did megatooth sharks play a larger role in prehistoric food webs? Science Advances, 8(25), Article add2674 https://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.add2674
Trif, N. & Codrea, V.A. (2022): New data on Maastrichtian fishes of the ‘Hațeg Island’. Geoloski anali Balkanskoga poluostrva, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.2298/GABP220424001T

Caira, J.N. & Jensen, K. (2022): Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 'tetraphyllidean' Clade 3 (Cestoda) based on new material from orectolobiform sharks in Australia and Taiwan. Folia Parasitologica, 69, Article 10  https://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2022.010
Gerard, C. & Herve, M.R. & Hamel, H. & Gay, M. & Barbier, M. & Barreau, T. (2022): Metazoan parasite community as a potential biological indicator in juveniles of the starry smooth-hound Mustelus asterias Cloquet, 1819 (Carcharhiniformes Triakidae). Aquatic Living Resources, 35, Article 3  https://dx.doi.org/10.1051/alr/2022002
Ruiz-Escobar, F. & Torres-Carrera, G. & Ramos-Sánchez, M. & García-Prieto, L. & Mendoza-Garfias, B. & Oceguera-Figueroa, A. (2022): Peruanocotyle pelagica n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae), Parasite of the Pacific Cownose Ray Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann and Jenkins, 1891 (Batoidea: Rhinopteridae) from the Southern Mexican Pacific Ocean. Journal of Parasitology, 108(3), 238–244  https://dx.doi.org/10.1645/21-27



Sharks may be closer to the city than you think, new study finds

Unlike big land predators, the ocean's top predators don't avoid urban areas

Date: June 16, 2022
Source: University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science
Summary: The world's coastlines are rapidly urbanizing, but how this increased human presence may impact species living in the ocean is not fully understood. Scientists tracked the movements of three shark species, bull, nurse and great hammerhead, in relation to the city of Miami. Given the chemical, light, and noise pollution emanating from the coastal metropolis, researchers expected sharks to avoid areas close to the city, but that's not what they found.

What did Megalodon eat? Anything it wanted -- including other predators

Date: June 22, 2022
Source: Princeton University
Summary: Megalodon sharks, which went extinct about 3 million years ago, were three times longer than modern great white sharks and were apex predators at highest trophic level ever measured. Researchers used the traces of nitrogen trapped in shark tooth enamel to calculate the trophic levels of the prehistoric predators.

The pair of Orcas deterring Great White Sharks

New findings add to an understanding of how Great Whites use their 'flight' instincts to avoid predators for the long-term and en masse

Date: June 30, 2022
Source: Taylor & Francis Group
Summary: A pair of Orca (Killer Whales) that have been terrorizing and killing Great White Sharks off the coast of South Africa since 2017 has managed to drive large numbers of the sharks from their natural aggregation site.

What are whale sharks up to?

Date: July 4, 2022
Source: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Summary: Satellite-tracking of the largest fish in the ocean offered insight into their migratory and feeding behavior, but their breeding grounds are still a mystery.

Historical dataset could help scientists better understand sharks

Date: July 6, 2022
Source: Flinders University
Summary: For the first time, the longest-running historical record of human-shark interactions in Australia is now accessible online. This follows a growing trend to make scientific datasets accessible, maximizing the use and impact of the data.

New IUCN Shark News Newsletter is out!
Download: https://www.iucnssg.org/shark-news.htmlne