NEWSLETTER 01/2019 14.01.2019

Please acknowledge use of the database www.shark-references.com in your publications, and cite: 

Pollerspöck, J. & Straube, N. 2019, Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali), www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2019

Two new features!!!

1) By species literature list export

We added a tool allowing for exporting reference lists of species, i.e. if you would like to have the list of references of a particular species, you can simply type https://shark-references.com/export/literature/species/<id> in your browser window, where <id> is the species ID number you find under „remarks“ of the species summary page (see screenshot). Automatically, a .csv containing all references will be downloaded. A .csv file can be opened with Excel or Libre office.



Team shark references presents a new tool: ELASMO KEY

This online identification key is based on morphological characters and is a beta version free for everybody to test and use. Please check out www.elasmo-key.org . A short manual is provided below.

The key is intended to allow for easy identification of shark specimen. Note that we are looking for volunteers to contribute! If you are interested to work on certain taxa or review characters of certain groups, please email us: info@shark-references.com

How to use the key


On the left hand side, you can find several drop down menus.

For optimizing your search, you should first define an order of sharks using the figure.

By describing the specimen by choosing appropriate characters, the hits can be further reduced.

For identifying the specimen to species level, it may be necessary to additionally activate family-specific characters, which can be done by defining a family in the relevant field.

On the right hand side, you will see the search results. By clicking the image, a full screen image will be displayed. The clickable species name is linked to the species description on www.shark-references.com.

Besides species identification, the key can be further used for displaying specific species groups or regional diversity checklists.

To do that, please choose the relevant options in the field "habitat". Subsequently, the results from a geographic search can be further specified by choosing relevant orders, families, or genera.




Additional informtion:

The "?"-symbols will show you explanations and/ or images explaining the characters.

Help 2

Menu choices on the right hand side:

1) "Terms" contains essential definitions of characters and measurements.

2) Under "Help" you will find explanations of characters

3) "About" will show you the imprint and contributing scientists.






Affiliation: Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile
Your interests in Chondrichthyans or short introduction to your research:
We are marine biologists from Chile and our research focuses on biology, systematics, and conservation of Chondrichthyes. In the last years, in association with other Labs around the globe, we have been studying size at hatching, trophic ecology and genetics of sharks and rays from different countries in the American Continent. Currently, we are studying diversification patterns of elasmobranchs from both, the south eastern Pacific and the south western Atlantic Oceans.

Would you like to become a shark-reference partner? Please contanct us per E-mail!


Partner in Google-Maps




New Images

Many thanks to the following people for providing images:

Frederik H. Mollen (Elasmobranch Research Belgium) for the images of Rhynchobatus australiaeWHITLEY, 1939, (ERB 1052), female, 40,6 cm DW, 115,0 cm TL, Taiwan

Valeria Gabbanelli, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC)-CONICET for a image of a mature male specimen of Zearaja brevicaudata (MARINI, 1933)

Dr. Simon Weigmann, Elasmobranch Research Laboratory for images of the new described shark Bythaelurus stewarti WEIGMANN, KASCHNER & THIEL, 2018 (holotype, ZMH 26251, adult male, 425 mm TL)

Missing papers:

Many thanks to all friends of shark-references, who sent us some missing papers last month!

Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project.

At the moment we are looking for some of the following papers:

Extinct Chondrichthyes:

CAPPETTA, H. & PFEIL, F.H. & SCHMIDT-KITTLER, N. (2000) New biostratigraphical data on the marine Upper Cretaceous and Palaeogene of Jordan. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 38: 81–95.
MAO, Y. & MA, Q. & FENG, Q. (2013) Discovery of Fish Microremains in the Gufeng Formation at the Luojiaba Section from Jianshi, West Hubei. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 30 (2): 175–183
MENDIOLA, C. & MARTINEZ, J. (2003) La ictiofauna fósil (Chondrichthyes, Euselachii) del Mesozoico y Cenozoico de España. Revista de la Societat Paleontológica d'Elx, 9: 1–103

MENDIOLA, C. (2004) Primera cita española del género Ptychodus AGASSIZ 1839 (Chondrichthyes, Euselachii). Revista de la Societat Paleontológica d'Elx, 13: 1–14

MENDIOLA, C. & LÓPEZ, A. (2005) La ictiofauna fósil (Chondrichthyes, Euselachii) del Serravalliense de Alicante (Sureste de España). Revista de la Societat Paleontológica d'Elx, 14: 1–51

Extant Chondrichthyes:

BERG, L.S. (1937) A classification of fish-like vertebrates. Bull. Acad. Sci. URSS, Cl. Sci. math. Natur. 1937: 1277–1280. [In English with Russ. Summ.] 

BERG, L.S. & SVETOVIDOV, A.N. (1955) Systema ribovraznich i rib nine jivuchtchich i iskopaemich. Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 20: 1–286

Please support www.shark-references.com and send missing papers (not listed papers or papers without the info-symbol) to juergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.com or nicolas.straube@shark-references.com



Upcoming Meetings:


Save the date! 25. - 29. March 2019

The Mexican Society of Cartilaginous Fishes A.C., in coordination with the Planetarium of Playa del Carmen SAYAB, invites to participate in the First Latin American Conference of Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras, and the VIII National Symposium of Sharks and Rays.


5th International Whale Shark Conference (IWSC5) from 28-31 May 2019

From 28-31 May 2019, the town of Exmouth in the Ningaloo Coast World Heritage Area will welcome delegates to the 5th International Whale Shark Conference (IWSC5), a meeting of the world’s leading whale shark scientists, conservationists, natural resource managers and tourism managers. This is the fifth such conference to be held, following on from the successful IWSC4 held in Doha, Qatar in 2016. This meeting is timed to showcase Ningaloo’s world’s best practice whale shark management program and will follow the Ningaloo Whaleshark Festival, an annual community event that celebrates these magnificent animals.
IWSC5 will bring together local scientists, researchers and postgraduate students to interact with international colleagues and collaborators to explore all aspects of whale shark biology and ecology and how this can translate to direct, on-ground conservation efforts. Delegates from around the world will be treated to four days of presentations, workshops, social functions and experiencing the world renowned Ningaloo whale shark tourism industry to forge new relationships and collaborations and debate ideas.
A core focus of IWSC5 will be bringing together end users of the science being presented, such as tourism managers, marine park managers and conservation groups. This will improve the uptake and application of research and help develop collaborations between research scientists and managers and industry.
For further information contact iwsc5@dbca.wa.gov.au. The webpage is under construction, please add to your favourites www.iwsc5.info


Dear colleagues,
We invite you to attend the XVI European Congress of Ichthyology, to be held in Lausanne, Switzerland on 2-6 September 2019. The scientific program will include sessions and symposia on taxonomy, phylogeny, anatomy, ecology, conservation, ethology, life history and other aspects of fish biology. Participants are encouraged to make oral and/or poster presentations. Ichthyologists wishing to organize a symposium on a specific topic are ecouraged to contact the organizers.

ORGANIZED BY: European Ichthyological Society
BOARD: Dr. Ivana Buj (president), University of Zagreb, Croatia
Dr. Jörg Bohlen, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Czech Republic
Dr. Alberto Teodorico Correia, University of Porto, Portugal
Dr. Maurice Kottelat, Delémont, Switzerland
Dr. Lukas Kalous, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
Dr. Lukas Rüber, Natural History Museum, Bern, Switzerland

LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE will be announced soon.
WEB SITE: http://ichthyology.eu/congresses/actual-congresses/
CONTACT: ivana.buj@biol.pmf.hr (for administrative issues, registration etc.),
mkottelat@dplanet.ch (for technical and local issues, etc.)

CONFERENCE VENUE: All conference activities will be held at the Aquatis Hotel and in
the facilities of the Aquatis Aquarium, both situated in Lausanne, Switzerland. AquatisbAquarium is the largest freshwater aquarium and vivarium in Europe. Lausanne is situated on the shore of Lake Geneva and is recognized as the home of the international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, but, in September 2019, it will be the meeting point of European and world ichthyologists.


SOCIAL PROGRAMME: to be announced later

CONFERENCE FEE: will be included in the Second announcement
December 2018 – Second announcement released
1st February – registration and abstract submission opens
30th April – abstract submission closes
31st May – deadline for registration
30th June – deadline for the late registration

Looking forward to meeting you in Lausanne!


Extant Chondrichthyes:

WHITE, W.T. & KYNE, P.M. & HARRIS, M. (2019):
 Lost before found: A new species of whaler shark Carcharhinus obsolerus from the Western Central Pacific known only from historic records. PLoS ONE, 14 (1): e0209387
New species: Carcharhinus obsolerus
AbstractCarcharhinus obsolerus is described based on three specimens from Borneo, Thailand and Vietnam in the Western Central Pacific. It belongs to the porosus subgroup which is characterised by having the second dorsal-fin insertion opposite the anal-fin midbase. It most closely resembles Cborneensis but differs in tooth morphology and counts and a number of morphological characters, including lack of enlarged hyomandibular pores which are diagnostic of Cborneensis. The historic range of Cobsolerus sp. nov. is under intense fishing pressure and this species has not been recorded anywhere in over 80 years. There is an urgent need to assess its extinction risk status for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. With so few known records, there is a possibility that Carcharhinus obsolerus sp. nov. has been lost from the marine environment before any understanding could be gained of its full historic distribution, biology, ecosystem role, and importance in local fisheries.

WEIGMANN, S. & KASCHNER, C.J. & THIEL, R. (2018): A new microendemic species of the deep-water catshark genus Bythaelurus (Carcharhiniformes, Pentanchidae) from the northwestern Indian Ocean, with investigations of its feeding ecology, generic review and identification key. PLoS ONE, 13 (12): e0207887
New species: Bythaelurus stewarti
Abstract: A new deep-water catshark, Bythaelurus stewarti, is described based on 121 examined specimens caught on the Error Seamount (Mount Error Guyot) in the northwestern Indian Ocean. The new species differs from all congeners in the restricted distribution, a higher spiral valve turn count and in the morphology of the dermal denticles. It is distinguished from its morphologically and geographically closest congener, Bhispidus (Alcock), by the larger size (maximum size 44 vs. 39 cm TL, maturity size of males 35–39 vs. 21–28 cm TL), darker fresh coloration and dark grayish-brown mottling of the ventral head (vs. ventral head typically uniformly yellowish or whitish). Furthermore, it has a strongly different morphology of dermal denticles, in particular smaller and less elongate branchial, trunk and lateral caudal denticles that are set much less densely and have a surface that is very strongly and fully structured by reticulations (vs. structured by reticulations only in basal fourth). In addition, the new species differs from Bhispidus in having more slender claspers that are gradually narrowing to the bluntly pointed tip without knob-like apex (vs. claspers broader and with distinct knob-like apex), more spiral valve turns (11–12 vs. 8–10) and numerous statistical differences in morphometrics. A review of and a key to the species of Bythaelurus are given.

Extinct Chondrichthyes:

REINECKE, T. & VON DER HOCHT, F. & GILLE, D. & KINDLIMANN, R. (2018): A review of the odontaspidid shark Carcharoides AMEGHINO 1901 (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) in the Chattian and Rupelian of the North Sea Basin, with the definition of a neotype of Carcharoides catticus (PHILIPPI, 1846) and description of a new species. Palaeontos, 31: 75 pp, 42 textfigures, 3 tables
New species: Carcharoides lipsiensis
Abstract: The odontaspidid shark genus Carcharoides AMEGHINO, 1901 existed at least since the Middle–Late Eocene and became extinct in the Middle Miocene. It is represented by two nominal species, Carcharoides catticus (PHILIPPI, 1846) first described from the Kassel Formation, Chattian of northern Hesse, Germany, and the type species Carcharoides totuserratus AMEGHINO, 1901, from the Gaiman Formation, Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Based on existing collection material previously assigned to C. catticus, a new species, Carcharoides lipsiensis sp.nov., is described here from the Markkleeberg Member of the Böhlen Formation, Rupelian, formerly exposed in brown coal pits south of Leipzig, southeastern Germany. The probably lost type of “Otodus” catticus, a right upper lateroposterior tooth, is replaced by a neotype recovered from the type deposit and location near Castle Weissenstein, west of Kassel, Germany. The dental characteristics of the three nominal species are described and compared by selected morphometric parameters. Based on two sets of isolated teeth from the early to late Chattian and the Burdigalian–Langhian of the North Sea Basin, respectively, an artificial tooth set is assembled and proposed for C. catticus. The comparative study of numerous teeth of C. catticus and Carcharias gustrowensis(WINKLER, 1875) from the Sülstorf Formation, Chattian of Mecklenburg, northeastern Germany, ranging in height from newborn (2–4 mm) to adult (max. 23 mm) indicates a weak ontogenetic heterodonty for both genera. Carcharoides catticus shares several dental characteristics with sandtiger sharks Carcharias spp., but apparently has only two larger teeth in the upper anterior rows rather than three in Carcharias. Among other characters, it differs from Carcharias spp. by the dimensional ratio (heigth/width) of lower lateroposterior teeth being narrower (at the same height) than corresponding teeth of Carcharias spp. Although having been much less common than Carcharias spp., C. catticus was widely distributed in the northern Atlantic, Mediterranean Tethys and Paratethys during the Early to Middle Miocene and less frequently during the Chattian. 

BRITO, P.M. & VILLALOBOS-SEGURAB, E. & ALVARADO-ORTEGA, J. (2019): A new early cretaceous guitarfish (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea) from the Tlayúa Formation, Puebla, Mexico. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 90: 155-161
New genus: Tlalocbatos
New species: Tlalocbatos applegatei
Abstract: A new species of “guitarfish" from the Lower Cretaceous Tlayúa Formation of Puebla, Mexico is here described as †Tlalocbatos applegatei gen. et sp. nov. The new species is based on a nearly complete articulated specimen and represents the first chondrichthyan from this formation. The inclusion of a new character and two additional taxa into a phylogenetic analysis based on previous studies generates a novel phylogenetic hypothesis of batoid phylogeny. Paraphyly of the “guitarfishes” is corroborated, although a new clade was recovered comprising the modern Platyrhinidae plus †Britobatos primarmatus as the sister group of the node formed by †Stahlraja, †Tlalocbatos, plus the Trygonorrhinidae. †Tlalocbatus differs from other batoids by the following combination of characters: nasal capsules with horn-like anterior processes; homodont dentition; presence of a well-developed median uvula; lateral uvulae not differentiated; pectoral propterygium, extending as far as the anterior part of the nasal capsules; two radials articulating directly with the scapulocoracoid, between the mesopterygium and the metapterygium; two dorso-lateral nuchal cartilages, unfused with the synarcual; and an elevated number of post-synarcual centra (115–118). The distribution of †Stahlraja(†Tlalocbatos (trygonorrhinids)), suggests that this clade originated in the western part of the Tethys-Caribbean region with a later dispersion westward towards the Pacific.

HODNETT, J.-P.M. & ELLIOTT, D.K. (2018): Carboniferous chondrichthyan assemblages from the Surprise Canyon and Watahomigi formations (latest Mississippian–Early Pennsylvanian) of the western Grand Canyon, Northern Arizona. Journal of Paleontology, 92 (Supplement S77): 1-33
New genera: Hokomata, Microklomax, Novaculodus, Amaradontus
New species: Hokomata parva, Microklomax carrieae, Novaculodus billingsleyi, Cooleyella platera, Amaradontus santuccii
Abstract: Two chondrichthyan assemblages of Late Mississippian/Early Pennsylvanian age are now recognized from the western Grand Canyon of northern Arizona. The latest Serpukhovian Surprise Canyon Formation has yielded thirty-one taxa from teeth and dermal elements, which include members of the Phoebodontiformes, Symmoriiformes, Bransonelliformes, Ctenacanthiformes, Protacrodontoidea, Hybodontiformes, Neoselachii (Anachronistidae), Paraselachii (Gregoriidae, Deeberiidae, Orodontiformes, and Eugeneodontiformes), Petalodontiformes, and Holocephali. The euselachian grade taxa are remarkably diverse with four new taxa recognized here; the Protacrodontidae: Microklomax carrieae new genus new species and Novaculodus billingsleyi new genus new species, and the Anchronistidae: Cooleyella platera new species and Amaradontus santuciinew genus new species The Surprise Canyon assemblage also has the youngest occurrence of the elasmobranch Clairina, previously only known from the Upper Devonian. The Surprise Canyon Formation represents a nearshore fluvial infilling of karstic channels, followed by a shallow marine bioherm reef, and finally deeper open water deposition. The early Bashkirian Watahomigi Formation represents open marine deposition and contains only two taxa: a new xenacanthiform, Hokomata parva new genus new species, and the holocephalan Deltodus. The relationship between the Surprise Canyon and Watahomigi chondrichthyan assemblages and other significant coeval chondrichthyan assemblages suggests that there may have been eastern and western distinctions among the Euamerican assemblages during the Serpukhovian due to geographic separation by the formation of Pangea.

CHERO, J.D. & CRUCES, C.L. & SÁEZ, G. & LUQUE, J.L. (2018): A new genus and species of the Dasybatotreminae Bychowsky, 1957 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae), parasitic on Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru. Zootaxa, 4527 (3): 347–356
New genus: Peruanocotyle
New species: Peruanocotyle chisholmae
AbstractPeruanocotyle n. gen. is proposed to accommodate Peruanocotyle chisholmae n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae). The new species is a gill parasite of the diamond stingray, Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), a demersal chondrichthyan collected off the coast of Callao, Peru. Peruanocotyle n. gen. is placed in the Dasybatotreminae Bychowsky, 1957 because its anterior attachment organ has multiple glandular openings. Peruanocotyle chisholmae n. gen., n. sp. is unique among the Dasybatotreminae, by having: a well-developed, broadly ovoid anterior attachment organ with numerous grooves and an anteromedial notch; three prominent anterior glands that are connected to numerous peripheral glands; an unusual whip-shaped male copulatory organ composed of four connate tubes; an ejaculatory duct with slightly sclerotized walls where the proximal end has criss-crossed creases and the distal portion is highly convoluted; an ejaculatory bulb with one bipartite internal seminal vesicle; a wheel-shaped haptor with one central loculus and eight peripheral loculi; anchors that are much shorter than the width of marginal membrane and have an accessory sclerotized piece present; four oval testes, arranged in two groups; an ovary that has six clavate, proximal lobules and a distal portion that is strongly coiled; intestinal ceca with large lateral and medial diverticula; an oral opening surrounded by numerous small dome-like papillae; and a single vagina with sclerotized walls. Dasybatotreminae is amended to accommodate the new genus, and the new species is fully described and illustrated herein. The present finding adds to the other three marine monocotylids previously reported from Peru, namely Anoplocotyloides chorrillensis Luque & Iannacone, 1991; Anoplocotyloides papillatus (Doran, 1953) Young, 1967 and Monocotyle luquei Chero, Cruces, Iannacone, Sanchez, Minaya, Sáez & Alvariño, 2016.

COLEMAN, G.M. & BEVERIDGE, I. & CAMPBELL, R.A. (2018): New species of RhinebothriumLinton, 1890 (Cestoda: Rhinebothriidea) parasitic in Australian stingrays (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea). Systematic Parasitology, in press
New species: Rhinebothrium dasyatidis, Rhinebothrium bunburyense, Rhinebothrium vandiemeni, Rhinebothrium fluviorum, Rhinebothrium urolophi, Rhinebothrium nickoli, Rhinebothrium fungiforme
Abstract: Seven new species of the cestode genus Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890 are reported from the spiral intestines of batoid elasmobranchs from the coasts of Australia. The new species are: Rhinebothrium dasyatidis n. sp. from the smooth stingray Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Hutton) from Spencer Gulf, South Australia; Rhinebothrium bunburyense n. sp. from the southern eagle ray, Myliobatis tenuicaudatus Hector from off Bunbury, Western Australia; Rhinebothrium vandiemeni n. sp. from the reticulate whipray, Himantura australis Last, Naylor & Manjaji-Matsumoto from off Cape van Diemen, Northern Territory; Rhinebothrium fluviorum n. sp. from the estuary stingray, Hemitrygon fluviorum (Ogilby) from Moreton Bay, Queensland; Rhinebothrium urolophi n. sp. from the wide stingaree Urolophus expansus McCulloch from off Beachport, South Australia;Rhinebothrium nickoli n. sp. from the brown whipray Maculabatis toshi (Whitley) and the reticulate whipray, Himantura australis Last, Naylor & Manjaji-Matsumoto, from Nickol Bay, Western Australia and from the white-spotted guitarfish Rhynchobatus australiae (Whitley) from off Broome, Western Australia and Rhinebothrium fungiforme n. sp. from the estuary stingray, Hemitrygon fluviorum(Ogilby) from Fog Bay in the Northern Territory.

BOUDAYA, L. & NEIFAR, L. & EUZET, L. (2018): A new genus and three new species of Anthocephaliidae (Cestoda, Rhinebothriidea) from the round fantail stingray, Taeniurops grabata(Chondrichthyes, Dasyatidae) from the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Systematic Parasitology, in press
New species: Alveobothrium grabatum Alveobothrium zarzisense, Alveobothrium jeancadenati
Abstract: The spiral intestines of a total of 16 round fantail stingrays Taeniurops grabata from the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia were examined for cestodes. A new genus is erected in the Anthocephaliidae (Rhinebothridea) as Alveobothrium gen. n., with Alveobothrium grabatum sp. n. as its type species; the new genus differs from the other genera in the order in that its members possess bothridia with an apical sucker, marginal loculi and multiple staggered rows of facial loculi. Alveobothrium zarzisense sp. n. is also described. The species differ in the number of marginal loculi and in proglotid anatomy. Another anthocephaliid belonging to the genus Anthocephalum is also described from T. grabataAnthocephalum jeancadenati sp. n. is most similar to A. alicae and A. michaeli, but differs in size of terminal proglottid and number of proglottids. All these new species are also found in formalin-preserved cestodes from T. grabata collected at Gorée Island (Senegal) between 1946 and 1954 by the French ichthyologist J. Cadenat and conserved in the personal collection of the late L. Euzet. The presence of the same rhinebothriideans species parasitizing T. grabata in both the Mediterranean (Tunisia) and the eastern Atlantic (Senegal) is discussed.


PLEASE send your new papers tojuergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.comor nicolas.straube@shark-references.com   

Latest Research Articles

Extant Chondrichthyes:
ADAO, A.C. & BREEN, M. & EICHERT, M. & BORGES, T.C. (2018) By-catch species susceptibilities and potential for survival in Algarve (southern Portugal) deep-water crustacean trawl fishery. Scientia Marina, 82: 141-149 https://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04740.02A
ALEGRET, P.L. (2018) Sharks. eBook 
ATAKE, O.J. & COOPER, D.M.L. & EAMES, B.F. (2019) Bone-like features in skate suggest a novel elasmobranch synapomorphy and deep homology of trabecular mineralization patterns. Acta Biomaterialia, 84: 424-436 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2018.11.047
BALLAS, R. (2018) Re: Clinical features of 27 shark attack cases on La Réunion island. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 85 (6): 1134 https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002113
BERNARD, A.M. & RICHARDS, V.P. & STANHOPE, M.J. & SHIVJI, M.S. (2018) Transcriptome-Derived Microsatellites Demonstrate Strong Genetic Differentiation in Pacific White Sharks. Journal of Heredity, 109 (7): 771-779 https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esy045
BIGMAN, J.S. & PARDO, S.A. & PRINZING, T.S. & DANDO, M. & WEGNER, N.C. & DULVY, N.K. (2018) Ecological lifestyles and the scaling of shark gill surface area. Journal of Morphology, 279 (12): 1716-1724 https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20879
BRIONES-MENDOZA, J. & PINCAY-ESPINOZA, J.E. & PALMA-CHAVEZ, J. & ROMERO-CAICEDO, A. (2018) Notas sobre la biología del tiburón mamona Mustelus lunulatus (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae) en el Pacífico Central ecuatoriano. [Notes on the biology of the sicklefin smooth-hound shark Mustelus lunulatus (Carcharhinifomies: Triakidae) in the Ecuadorian Central Pacific] Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía, 53 (2): 279-284 https://dx.doi.org/10.22370/rbmo.2018.53.2.1301
CAPAPÉ, C. & RAFRAFI-NOUIRA, S. & OUNIFI-BEN AMOR, K. & BEN AMOR, M.M. (2018) Additional records of sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae) from the northern Tunisian coast (central Mediterranean Sea). Annales, Series Historia Naturalis, 28 (2): 99-104 https://dx.doi.org/10.19233/ASHN.2018.11
CARVALHO, F. & LEE, H.H. & PINER, K.R. & KAPUR, M. & CLARKE, S.C. (2018) Can the status of pelagic shark populations be determined using simple fishery indicators? Biological Conservation, 228: 195-204 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.09.034
CHATZISPYROU, A. & ARONI, M. & LEFKADITOU, E. & KAPIRIS, K. & GIOVOS, I. & ANASTASOPOULOU, A. (2019) Some biological information on a female kitefin shark, Dalatias licha (Bonnaterre, 1788) stranded in the Laconikos gulf of Greece (SE Ionian Sea). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 19 (12): in press https://dx.doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v19_12_09
COOPER, R.L. & THIERY, A.P. & FLETCHER, A.G. & DELBARRE, D.J. & RASCH, L.J. & FRASER, G.J. (2018) An ancient Turing-like patterning mechanism regulates skin denticle development in sharks. Science Advances, 4 (11): eaau5484 https://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau5484
CORRIGAN, S. & LOWTHER, A.D. & BEHEREGARAY, L.B. & BRUCE, B.D. & CLIFF, G. & DUFFY, C.A. & FOULIS, A. & FRANCIS, M.P. & GOLDSWORTHY, S.D. & HYDE, J.R. & JABADO, R.W. & KACEV, D. & MARSHALL, L. & MUCIENTES, G.R. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. & PEPPERELL, J.G. & QUEIROZ, N. & WHITE, W.T. & WINTNER, S.P. & ROGERS, P.J. (2018) Population Connectivity of the Highly Migratory Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque 1810) and Implications for Management in the Southern Hemisphere. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6: 187 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2018.00187
DE CARVALHO, M.M. & DE OLIVEIRA, M.R. & LOPES, P.F.M. & OLIVEIRA, J.E.L. (2018) Ethnotaxonomy of sharks from tropical waters of Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 14: 71 https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0273-0
DE OLIVEIRA, L.R. & DE CARVALHO, M.R. & SOARES, M.C. (2019) Caudal musculature in ground sharks, Carcharhiniformes, with remarks on their phylogenetic interrelationships. Journal of Morphology, 280 (1): 68-77 https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20916
DELGADO, M. & HIDALGO, M. & PUERTA, P. & SANCHEZ-LEAL, R. & RUEDA, L. & SOBRINO, I. (2018) Concurrent changes in spatial distribution of the demersal community in response to climate variations in the southern Iberian coastal Large Marine Ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 607: 19-36 https://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps12791
DELROISSE, J. & DUCHATELET, L. & FLAMMANG, P. & MALLEFET, J. (2018) De novo transcriptome analyses provide insights into opsin-based photoreception in the lanternshark Etmopterus spinax. PLoS ONE, 13 (12): e0209767 https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209767
DELSER, P.M. & CORRIGAN, S. & DUCKETT, D. & SUWALSKI, A. & VEUILLE, M. & PLANES, S. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. & MONA, S. (2019) Demographic inferences after a range expansion can be biased: the test case of the blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus). Heredity, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41437-018-0164-0
FILOWITZ, G.L. & RAJAKUMAR, R. & O'SHAUGHNESSY, K.L. & COHN, M.J. (2018) Cartilaginous Fishes Provide Insights into the Origin, Diversification, and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Vertebrate Estrogen Receptor Genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35 (11): 2695-2701 https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msy165
FRANCIS, M.P. & SHIVJI, M.S. & DUFFY, C.A.J. & ROGERS, P.J. & BYRNE, M.E. & WETHERBEE, B.M. & TINDALE, S.C. & LYON, W.S. & MEYERS, M.M. (2019) Oceanic nomad or coastal resident? Behavioural switching in the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus). Marine Biology, 166: 5 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-018-3453-5
FREITAS, M. & COSTA, L. & DELGADO, J. & JIMENEZ, S. & TIMOTEO, V. & VASCONCELOS, J. & GONZALEZ, J.A. (2018) Deep-sea sharks as by-catch of an experimental fishing survey for black scabbardfishes (Aphanopus spp.) off the Canary Islands (NE Atlantic). Scientia Marina, 82: 151-154 https://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04793.03A
HENSEL, E. & WENCLAWSKI, S. & LAYMAN, C.A. (2018) Using a small, consumer-grade drone to identify and count marine megafauna in shallow habitats. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 46 (5): 1025-1033 https://dx.doi.org/10.3856/vol46-issue5-fulltext-15
HOFFMANN, S.L. & DONATELLI, C.D. & LEIGH, S.C. & BRAINERD, E.L. & PORTER, M.E. (2018) Three-dimensional movements of the pectoral fin during yaw turns in the Pacific spiny dogfish, Squalus suckleyi. Biology Open: bio.037291 https://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.037291
HOWARD, S. & BRILL, R. & HEPBURN, C. & ROCK, J. (2018) Microprocessor-based prototype bycatch reduction device reduces bait consumption by spiny dogfish and sandbar shark. Ices Journal of Marine Science, 75 (6): 2235-2244 https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsy098
HUVENEERS, C. & APPS, K. & BECERRIL-GARCÍA, E.E. & BRUCE, B. & BUTCHER, P.A. & CARLISLE, A.B. & CHAPPLE, T.K. & CHRISTIANSEN, H.M. & CLIFF, G. & CURTIS, T.H. & DALY-ENGEL, T.S. & DEWAR, H. & DICKEN, M.L. & DOMEIER, M.L. & DUFFY, C.A.J. & FORD, R. & FRANCIS, M.P. & FRENCH, G.C.A. & GALVÁN-MAGAÑA, F. & GARCÍA-RODRÍGUEZ, E. & GENNARI, E. & GRAHAM, B. & HAYDEN, B. & HOYOS-PADILLA, E.M. & HUSSEY, N.E. & JEWELL, O.J.D. & JORGENSEN, S.J. & KOCK, A.A. & LOWE, C.G. & LYONS, K. & MEYER, L. & OELOFSE, G. & OÑATE-GONZÁLEZ, E.C. & OOSTHUIZEN, H. & O’SULLIVAN, J.B. & RAMM, K. & SKOMAL, G. & SLOAN, S. & SMALE, M.J. & SOSA-NISHIZAKI, O. & SPERONE, E. & TAMBURIN, E. & TOWNER, AV. & WCISEL, M.A. & WENG, K.C. WERRY, J.M. (2018) Future Research Directions on the “Elusive” White Shark. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5: 455 https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00455
JAÑEZ, J.A. & MEIJIDE, F.J. & LUCIFORA, L.O. & ABRAHAM, C. & ARGEMI, F. (2018) Growth and reproduction in captivity unveils remarkable life-history plasticity in the smallnose fanskate, Sympterygia bonapartii (Chondrichthyes: Rajiformes). Neotropical Ichthyology, 16 (4): e180013 https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20180013
JAWAD, L.A. & AL-DIRAWI, A.M.H. & AL-HILALI, H.I. & AL-ASADI, U.T.S. (2019) Observations of stranded and swimming whale sharks Rhincodon typus in Khor Al-Zubair, NW Arabian Gulf and Shatt al-Arab Estuary, Iraq. Journal of Fish Biology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13891
JOHNY, T.K. & SAIDUMOHAMED, B.E. & SASIDHARAN, R.S. & BHAT, S.G. (2018) Metabarcoding data of bacterial diversity of the deep sea shark, Centroscyllium fabricii. Data in Brief, 21: 1029-1032 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.10.062
KABASAKAL, H. & BAYRI, E. & ATAÇ, E. (2018) Recent records of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae), in Turkish waters (eastern Mediterranean). Annales, Series Historia Naturalis, 28 (2): 93–98 https://dx.doi.org/10.19233/ASHN.2018.10
LE BOURG, B. & KISZKA, J.J. & BUSTAMANTE, P. & HEITHAUS, M.R. & JAQUEMET, S. & HUMBER, F. (2018) Effect of body length, trophic position and habitat use on mercury concentrations of sharks from contrasted ecosystems in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Environmental Research, 169: 387-395 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.11.024
LIPPMANN, J. (2018) Fatal shark attacks on divers in Australia, 1960-2017. Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, 48 (4): 224-228 https://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm48.4.224-228
LOGAN, R.K. & WHITE, C.F. & WINKLER, C. & JORGENSEN, S.J. & O'SULLIVAN, J.B. & LOWE, C.G. & LYONS, K. (2018) An evaluation of body condition and morphometric relationships within southern California juvenile white sharks Carcharodon carcharias. Journal of Fish Biology, 93 (5): 842-849 https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13785
LYONS, K. & WYNNE-EDWARDS, K.E. (2019) Steroid Concentrations in Maternal Serum and Uterine Histotroph in Round Stingrays (Urobatis halleri). General and Comparative Endocrinology, in Press https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2018.12.009
MEYER, L. & FOX, A. & HUVENEERS, C. (2018) Simple biopsy modification to collect muscle samples from free-swimming sharks. Biological Conservation, 228: 142-147 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.10.024
MITCHELL, J.D. & MCLEAN, D.L. & COLLIN, S.P. & LANGLOIS, T.J. (2018) Shark depredation in commercial and recreational fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 28 (4): 715-748 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11160-018-9528-z
MOREIRA, R.A. & DE CARVALHO, M.R. (2018) Morphology of the clasper musculature in rays (Chondrichthyes; Elasmobranchii: Batoidea), with comments on their phylogenetic interrelationships. Journal of Morphology, 279 (12): 1827-1839 https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20904
PASTEN-MARAMBIO, V. & HEVIA-HORMAZABAL, V. & ACUNA, E. & VEGA, J.M.A. (2018) A case of tetrophthalmia with unilateral synophthalmia in an unborn fetus of blue shark Prionace glauca (Carcharhiniformes, Carcharhinidae). Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía, 53: 25-30 https://dx.doi.org/10.22370/rbmo.2018.53.0.1251
PURUSHOTTAMA, G.B. & THAKURDAS, TANDEL, S.S. & MHATRE, V.D. & SINGH, V.V. (2018) Records of rare elasmobranchs and their biological observation from the north-eastern Arabian Sea, off Mumbai. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, 47 (8): 1566-1573 
RODRIGUES, N.V. & BERTONCINI, Á. & FONTES, J. (2018) Peixes Marinhos Costeiros de São Tomé e Príncipe | Coastal Marine Fishes of São Tomé and Príncipe. Flying Sharks, ISBN: 978-989-208568 
SMUKALL, M.J. & KESSEL, S.T. & FRANKS, B.R. & FELDHEIM, K.A. & GUTTRIDGE, T.L. & GRUBER, S.H. (2019) No apparent negative tagging effects after 13 years at liberty for lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris implanted with acoustic transmitter. Journal of Fish Biology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13856
SURIANO, C.M. & BODZNICK, D. (2018) Morphological development of the dorsal hindbrain in an elasmobranch fish (Leucoraja erinacea). Zoological Letters, 4: 28 https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40851-018-0111-1
TIRALONGO, F. & MESSINA, G. & GATTI, R.C. & TIBULLO, D. & LOMBARDO, B.M. (2018) Some biological aspects of juveniles of the rough ray, Raja radula Delaroche, 1809 in Eastern Sicily (central Mediterranean Sea). Journal of Sea Research, 142: 174-179 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2018.10.001
TOMITA, T. & TODA, M. & MURAKUMO, K. (2018) Stealth breathing of the angelshark. Zoology, 130: 1-5 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2018.07.003
WAINWRIGHT, B.J. & IP, Y.C.A. & NEO, M.L. & CHANG, J.J.M. & GAN, C.Z. & CLARK-SHEN, N. & HUANG, D.W. & RAO, M. (2018) DNA barcoding of traded shark fins, meat and mobulid gill plates in Singapore uncovers numerous threatened species. Conservation Genetics, 19 (6): 1393-1399 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-018-1108-1
WAKIDA-KUSUNOKI, A.T. & HERNANDEZ-LAZO, C.C. & MENDOZA-CARRANZA, M. (2018) Presence of roughtail stingray Bathytoshia centroura (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía, 53 (2): 261-264 https://dx.doi.org/10.22370/rbmo.2018.53.2.1298
WEIGMANN, S. & KASCHNER, C.J. & THIEL, R. (2018) A new microendemic species of the deep-water catshark genus Bythaelurus (Carcharhiniformes, Pentanchidae) from the northwestern Indian Ocean, with investigations of its feeding ecology, generic review and identification key. PLoS ONE, 13 (12): e0207887 https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207887
WELTZ, K. & LYLE, J.M. & SEMMENS, J.M. & OVENDEN, J.R. (2018) Population genetics of the endangered Maugean skate (Zearaja maugeana) in Macquarie Harbour, Tasmania. Conservation Genetics, 19 (6): 1505-1512 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-018-1117-0
WHITE, W.T. & KYNE, P.M. & HARRIS, M. (2018) Lost before found: A new species of whaler shark Carcharhinus obsolerus from the Western Central Pacific known only from historic records. PLoS ONE, 14 (1): e0209387 https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209387
WONG, C.W.M. & CONTI-JERPE, I. & RAYMUNDO, L.J. & DINGLE, C. & ARAUJO, G. & PONZO, A. & BAKER, D.M. (2019) Whale Shark Tourism: Impacts on Coral Reefs in the Philippines. Environmental Management, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-018-1125-3
WOOD, C.M. & LIEW, H.J. & DE BOECK, G. & HOOGENBOOM, J.L. & ANDERSON, W.G. (2019) Nitrogen handling in the elasmobranch gut: a role for microbial urease. Journal of Experimental Biology, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.194787

Extinct Chondrichthyes:
ALBERTI, M. & REICH, S. (2018) A palaeoecological review of the lower Gatun Formation (Miocene) of Panama with special emphasis on trophic relationships. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 98 (4): 571-591 https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12549-018-0326-3
BIANUCCI, G. & COLLARETA, A. & BOSIO, G. & LANDINI, W. & GARIBOLDI, K. & GIONCADA, A. & LAMBERT, O. & MALINVERNO, E. & DE MUIZON, C. & VARAS-MALCA, R. & VILLA, I.M. & COLETTI, G. & URBINA, M. & DI CELMA, C. (2018) Taphonomy and palaeoecology of the lower Miocene marine vertebrate assemblage of Ullujaya (Chilcatay Formation, East Pisco Basin, southern Peru). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 511: 256-279 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.08.013
BRITO, P.M. & VILLALOBOS-SEGURAB, E. & ALVARADO-ORTEGA, J. (2019) A new early cretaceous guitarfish (chondrichthyes, batoidea) from the Tlayúa Formation, Puebla, Mexico. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 90: 155-161 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2018.12.005
CARRILLO-BRICEÑO, J.D. & LUZ, Z. & HENDY, A. & KOCSIS, L. & AGUILERA, O. & VENNEMANN, T. (2019) Neogene Caribbean elasmobranchs: diversity, paleoecology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Cocinetas Basin assemblage (Guajira Peninsula, Colombia). Biogeosciences, 16: 33-56 https://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-16-33-2019
CASATI, S. & DI CENCIO, A. & COLLARETA, A. (2018) The Pliocene elasmobranch collection at the Palaeontological Exhibition of G.A.M.P.S. (Badia a Settimo, Tuscany, Italy). Poster Abstract 1st Virtual Congress of Palaeontology "A new way to make Science", 01-15 December 2018, Web. 
GINTER, M. (2018) The dentition of a eugeneodontiform shark from the Lower Pennsylvanian of Derbyshire, UK. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 63 (4), 2018: 725-735 https://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00533.2018
HODNETT, J.-P.M. & ELLIOTT, D.K. (2018) Carboniferous chondrichthyan assemblages from the Surprise Canyon and Watahomigi formations (latest Mississippian–Early Pennsylvanian) of the western Grand Canyon, Northern Arizona. Journal of Paleontology, 92 (Supplement S77): 1-33 https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2018.72
HONE, D.W.E. & WITTON, M.P. & HABIB, M.B. (2018) Evidence for the Cretaceous shark Cretoxyrhina mantelli feeding on the pterosaur Pteranodon from the Niobrara Formation. PeerJ. 6: e6031 https://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6031
HOVESTADT, D.C. (2018) Reassessment and revision of the fossil Heterodontidae (Chondrichthyes: Neoselachii) based on tooth morphology of extant taxa. Palaeontos, 30: 73 textpages, 8 textfigures, 3 tables, 44 plates 
ITANO, W. (2019) Two lagerstätten and a false Edestus. Trilobite Tales, January 2019: 17-20 
MOLLEN, F.H. & HOVESTADT, D.C. (2018) A new partial skeleton of a palaeospinacid shark (Neoselachii, Synechodontiformes) from the Albian of northern France, with a review of the taxonomic history of Early Cretaceous species of Synechodus Woodward, 1888. Geodiversitas, 40 (25): 557-574 https://dx.doi.org/10.5252/geodiversitas2018v40a25
PANDEY, D.K. & CHASKAR, K. & CASE, G.R. (2018) Two fossil shark teeth from Lower Eocene Shales of the Khuiala Formation, Jaisalmer Basin, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 63 (2): in press 
PARTARRIEU, D. & VILLAFAÑA, J.A. & PINTO, L. & MOURGUES, F.A. & OYANADEL-URBINA, , P.A. & RIVADENEIRA, M.M. & CARRILLO-BRICEÑO, J.D. (2018) Neogene ‘horn sharks’ Heterodontus (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) from the Southeastern Pacific and their paleoenvironmental significance. Ameghiniana, 55 (6): 651–667 https://dx.doi.org/10.5710/AMGH.19.10.2018.3202
REINECKE, T. & VON DER HOCHT, F. & GILLE, D. & KINDLIMANN, R. (2018) A review of the odontaspidid shark Carcharoides AMEGHINO 1901 (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) in the Chattian and Rupelian of the North Sea Basin, with the definition of a neotype of Carcharoides catticus (PHILIPPI, 1846) and description of a new species. Palaeontos, 31: 75 pp, 42 textfigures, 3 tables 
TAPANILA, L. & PRUITT, J. & WILGA, C.D. & PRADEL, A. (2019) Saws, Scissors, and Sharks: Late Paleozoic Experimentation with Symphyseal Dentition. The Anatomical Record, in press https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24046
VICIANO, J. & LOPEZ-LAZARO, S. & D'ANASTASIO, R. (2018) Fossil teeth of Carcharocles megalodon: The collection of the University Museum of Chieti (Italy). Part I: Morphometric Analysis. International Journal of Morphology, 36 (4): 1378-1385 


BOUDAYA, L. & NEIFAR, L. & EUZET, L. (2019) A new genus and three new species of Anthocephaliidae (Cestoda, Rhinebothriidea) from the round fantail stingray, Taeniurops grabata (Chondrichthyes, Dasyatidae) from the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Helminthology, in press  https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X18001025
CHERO, J.D. & CRUCES, C.L. & SÁEZ, G. & LUQUE, J.L. (2018) A new genus and species of the Dasybatotreminae Bychowsky, 1957 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae), parasitic on Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan & Gilbert) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru. Zootaxa, 4527 (3): 347–356  https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4527.3.4
COLEMAN, G.M. & BEVERIDGE, I. & CAMPBELL, R.A. (2018) New species of Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890 (Cestoda: Rhinebothriidea) parasitic in Australian stingrays (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea). Systematic Parasitology, in press  https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9835-8


Who's tougher? Baby sharks or daddy sharks?

Study examines mechanical behavior of sharks' vertebrae under biological conditions

Date: January 3, 2019
Source: Florida Atlantic University
Summary: One would assume that since humans and many animals tend to get stiffer and perhaps tougher as they reach adulthood, the same would be true for sharks. A new study finds the opposite in these swift-swimming marine predators. The youngest sharks were stiffer and tougher than older sharks. Another key finding is that while scientists have historically looked at alternating patterns of mineralization on sharks' vertebrae to determine their age, these patterns are not related to time.

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Fifty years of decline in Queensland's coastal sharks

Date: December 13, 2018
Source: University of Queensland
Summary: Queensland's coastal shark numbers are continuing a 50-year decline, in sharp contradiction of suggestions of 'exploding' shark populations, according to a new analysis. Researchers analyzed data from the program, which has used baited drumlines and nets since 1962 to minimize human-shark interactions, and now spans 1,760 km of the Queensland coastline.

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Evidence of a fearsome shark taking down a pterosaur in mid-flight

December 19, 2018 by Gary Polakovic, University of Southern California

It was a prehistoric clash of the ages that didn't end pretty when a monster in the sky clashed with a beast of the deep.

The sorry outcome for one particular flying reptile is brutally recorded on a fossil where a shark chomped its neck, leaving a telltale tooth wedged against a vertebra. USC researchers who studied the bones kept at the Los Angeles County Natural History Museum say it's a rare glimpse of wildlife interactions in the age of dinosaurs.

A window to a lost world, the findings help fill gaps about how a group of extinct flying creatures – pterosaurs – lived and behaved. The study appears in the Dec. 14 issue of Peer J.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-evidence-fearsome-shark-pterosaur-mid-flight.html#jCp