NEWSLETTER 7/2016 28.07.2016

Please acknowledge use of the database www.shark-references.com in your publications, and cite: 

Pollerspöck, J. & Straube, N. 2016, Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali), www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2016


Name:   Catsharks
Affiliation: Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC)
Our research focuses on ecology and conservation of chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras). We are especially interested in the trophic ecology of these species, habitat utilization of chondricthyans within ecosystems and the anthropogenic impacts on their populations.
We are currently working on clarifying the trophic and ecological role of chondrichthyans in the Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic, focusing on threatened species.
We have expertise in several fields such as biologging in skates, physiology, stable isotope analysis, genetics, taxonomy of chondrichthyans and evaluation of fisheries resources.
We also collaborate with schools on cultural outreach about chondrichthyans and its importance in the ecosystem.

Would you like to become a shark-reference partner? Please contanct us per E-mail!

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Exhibition – June 26, 2016 to January 15, 2017
Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht, De Bosquetplein 6-7, 6211 KJ Maastricht, the Netherlands
In most of us, sharks incite stong feelings of fear, panic or repulsion. And yet, most of us will (or can) never encounter these animals in their natural habitats. Are the nail-biting moments in the film ‘Jaws’ (1975) to blame for our fear? Who knows? Our trepedation is entirely unnecessary! Rather, we should approach sharks with admiration and respect. Their place in the food chain cannot be contested; in fact they belong to the best guardians and cleaners of today’s oceans and seas. In actual fact, this has been the case for more than 300 million years …
In this exhibit we focus on sharks, rays (together forming the Neoselachii) and chimaeras (Holocephali) from present-days seas and oceans, but a number of extinct species from the Late Cretaceous of Liège-Limburg (Belgium, the Netherlands) and the Miocene-Pliocene of Noord-Brabant (the Netherlands) and the Antwerp area (Belgium) are also represented.
On a global scale over 1,130 species of shark and ray are on record now. How does this cast-iron design work, how does shark skin feel to the touch and what about this revolver dentition? All this is captured under the header ‘The shark phenomenon’. Huge leaps in evolution are mapped out and long extinct shark and ray species from our region have been selected, inclusive of the large-sized Otodus megalodon that roamed the Early Miocene seas in this part of Europe. Of all nine orders of shark representatives have been selected as isolated jaws, to which a few rays and a single chimaera have been added.
But we also show examples of what we, the human species, are now doing to these magnificent animals. A considerable number of species are severely threatened by extinction. Let us exchange our fear for respect, admiration and protection. Please visit our website regularly for the latest news on activities for children and on weekend lectures and meet-and-great sessions during the duration of the exhibition (www.nhmmaastricht.nl). A special weekend for collectors of fossil shark teeth will also be organised, during which an extinct species of lamniform shark will be ‘brought back to life’, as it were.
Join us in becoming a fan of sharks!
John W.M. Jagt, June 2016
Please check out the two crowdfunding applications below! Two great projects asking your support!

Gavin Naylor is seeking your support for the CToL project. More details here:



New images at shark-references:

Many thanks to the following persons for the permission to use their images!
  • Squalus acutipinnis, SAIAB 19863, female, 570 mm TL from Port Alfred, South Africa; © VIANA, S.T. & DE CARVALHO, M.R.

  • Squalus lobularis (HUMZ 91806, juvenile female, 557 mm TL) in lateral and ventral views; © VIANA, DE CARVALHO & GOMES, 2016

  • Squalus albicaudus (MNRJ 30188, adult male, 525 mm TL) in lateral and ventral views © VIANA, DE CARVALHO & GOMES, 2016

  • Squalus quasimodo in ventral and lateral view; holotype (MZUSP 118707, adult female, 700 mm TL); © VIANA, DE CARVALHO & GOMES, 2016

  • Squalus bahiensis in lateral and in ventral view, holotype (MNRJ 30180, adult male, 590 mm TL);  © VIANA, DE CARVALHO & GOMES, 2016

  • Squalus cubensis HOWELL RIVERO, 1936, adult female © Diana María Orozco-Velásquez

  • Narcine baliensis, sp. nov. (CSIRO H5858-04, 252 mm TL, juvenile?) in dorsal and ventral view. © DE CARVALHO & WHITE, 2016

  • Mustelus asterias CLOQUET, 1821, Eastern Scheldt, North Sea © Peter Verhoog, Dutch Shark Society

  • Rhincodon typus SMITH, 1828 © David Robinson

  • Bathyraja pacifica sp. nov., adult male holotype (NMNZ P39707, 1224 mm TL, fresh coloration): dorsal surface and  ventral surface;  © LAST, STEWART & SÉRET, 2016

  • Carcharhinus galapagensis (SNODGRASS & HELLER, 1905) caught near Cascade wharf, Norfolk Island, on 20 February 1991, © Malcolm Francis, New Zealand

  • Echinorhinus schoenfeldi PFEIL, 1983, C – anterior tooth (Ge 27007); C1: labial view; C2: lingual view; D: lateral tooth (Ge 27008), lingual view. E: lateral tooth (Ge 27018), Bystřice/O (ŠB) © CAPPETTA, H. & GREGOROVÁ, R. & ADNET, S.

  • Sinobatis brevicauda, presumably adult, female, paratype (ZMH 26159), 546mm TL; © Dr. Simon Weigmann,  Elasmo-Lab, Elasmobranch Research Laboratory

  • Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis sp. nov., holotype MNHN 2003-610, female 2040 mm TL, Specimen freshly caught at Iwik on 6th Febrary 2003 (Photo B. Valadou) © BERNARD SÉRET & GAVIN J.P. NAYLOR

  • Squatina david, new species, Male, holotype, 787 mm TL, INVEMAR PEC8250;  © ACERO, TAVERA, ANGUILA & HERNÁNDEZ, 2016

  • Rhynchobatus cooki sp. nov., adult male holotype (ZRC 41175, 723 mm TL, preserved) © LAST, P.R. & KYNE, P.M. & COMPAGNO, L.J.V.

  • Carcharhinus melanopterus (QUOY & GAIMARD, 1824) © SÉBASTIEN ENAULT, Kraniata Osteology

Missing papers:

Many thanks to all friends of shark-references, who sent us some missing papers last month!

Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project.

Please support www.shark-references.com and send missing papers (not listed papers or papers without the info-symbol) to juergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.com or nicolas.straube@shark-references.com



Upcoming Meetings:

UPDATED INFORMATION AT http://encuentro2016.squalus.org/

V Colombian meeting on Chondrichthyes (CMC) from 24 to 28 October 2016
Deadline for submission of abstracts/Fecha límite de envío de resúmenes: June 30, 2016
Date of response by the Organizing Committee/Fecha de respuesta por parte del Comité Organizador: July 30, 2016
please visit:http://encuentro2016.squalus.org/

28-30th October 2016

The 20th European Elasmobranch Association (EEA) Conference
28th-30th October 2016, Bristol, UK
Join us in Bristol this October for the annual EEA conference! EEA brings together scientists, researchers, advocates and students from across Europe and beyond and provides an excellent forum for discussion and networking.
Keynote Speakers include:
         Dr. Dean Grubbs: Associate Director of Research at Florida State University & President of the American Elasmobranch Society (AES).
         Sophy McCully & Dr. Jim Ellis: Centre for the Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas) & International Council for the Exploration of the Seas Working Group for Elasmobranch Fishes (ICES WGEF).
         Daniel Suddaby: Deputy Leader of WWF’s Smart Fishing Initiative.
Second call for papers!   Deadline 17th September.
The Shark Trust invites you to submit abstracts for oral presentations (options of 15 minutes or 5 minutes) and for poster presentations under the following themes:
- Species Conservation
- Fisheries Management
- Responsible Trade and Consumption
These themes reflect the Shark Trust’s three pillars of work and are the key objectives of the recently launched Global Shark and Ray Initiative (GSRI). There will also be a number of general sessions covering a broad range of topics depending on submissions.
The Shark Trust encourages speakers to consider the potential management or conservation applications of their research and reflect them in their presentations. Abstract selection will be undertaken by the Conference Committee and potential speakers must have registered and paid their delegate fees prior to abstract selection.
In addition Student Bursaries are on offer and will be awarded during the conference, applications must be received by 17th September and must include an abstract for an oral presentation.

Abstract submission & Student Bursary applications.  

Register at: www.eulasmo.org/eea-2016-registration 
For more info: www.sharktrust.org/en/eea2016

International Marine Conservation Congress


30 July - 3 August 2016 • St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador (YYT)

To conserve the world’s oceans we must go beyond science, and use it to inform policy and management, and ultimately to catalyze change. The Society for Conservation Biology's International Marine Conservation Congress (IMCC) brings together conservation professionals and students to develop new and powerful tools to further marine conservation science and policy.

The Call for Abstracts is currently open!

IMCCs are organized by the Marine Section of the Society for Conservation Biology.



The IWSC4 website is now live at http://www.iwsc4.com/, and registration and abstracts are being accepted online for oral and poster sessions.  The deadline for abstract submission is January 15, 2016.  Additional details can be found on the website, along with a printable meeting poster (poster attached here as well).
This international gathering of whale shark scientists, conservationists and decision-makers will feature the most recent advances in research, conservation and management of whale sharks globally.  The meeting will further highlight research on whale shark populations in the Arabian Gulf.  The conference will integrate six themes: 1) Growth and Reproduction, 2) Behavior and Ecology; 3) Physiology; 4) Genetics; 5) Wildlife Tourism; and 6) Threats and Management.  Meeting proceedings will be published in the peer-reviewed, open access journal Qscience Connect (http://www.qscience.com/loi/connect).

Registration is now open for the IUCN World Conservation Congress, taking place from 1 to 10 September 2016 in Hawaiʻi, U.S.A. Visit the Congress website to register for the event and book your accommodation.

Newly described species/Taxonomic News:


DE CARVALHO, M.R. & WHITE, W.T. (2016):
Narcine baliensis, a new species of electric ray from southeast
Asia (Chondrichthyes: Torpediniformes). Zootaxa, 4127 (1): 149–160
New species: Narcine baliensis
Abstract: A new species of numbfish, Narcine baliensis, sp. nov., is described from the tropical eastern
Indian Ocean from Indonesia. It is superficially similar to N. brevilabiata and N. atzi in aspects of its color
pattern, but is distinguished from both congeners in details of its color pattern, in tooth band morphology,
and in proportions of its dorsal fins, among other features. Narcine baliensis, sp. nov., is unique in having
a dorsal color pattern composed of large, circular, ovoid or elongate dark brown spots or blotches on
dorsal disc along with more numerous small (about eye-sized or slightly greater) brownish, subcircular
spots, with large blotches and small spots surrounded by a very slender creamy-white pattern, as well as
in having broadly circular upper and lower tooth bands of about the same width and shape. The genus
 Narcine is now composed of 20 valid species, but uncertainty remains concerning the identification and
morphological variation of some of its species in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region.

LAST, P.R. & STEWART, A.L. & SÉRET, B. (2016): A new temperate deepwater skate of the genus
Bathyraja (Rajoidei: Arhynchobatidae) from the South-West Pacific. Zootaxa, 4132 (1): 107–117
New species: Bathyraja pacifica
Abstract: A single specimen of a new Bathyraja skate was collected by the authors in 2003 during a
survey of the deepwater biota of the northern Tasman Sea by the New Zealand FRVTangaroa. This skate,
labelled the ‘blonde skate’ by voyage participants, is uniformly white on all surfaces of the body and the
skin is partly translucent. It belongs to a subgroup ofBathyraja with a large, almost smooth, quadrangular
disc and well-developed and equally spaced median tail thorns. Other similar and probably closely
related Bathyraja specimens have been caught in seas to the south of New Zealand since the discovery
of this species, but their identity is yet to be confirmed.

VIANA, S.T. & DE CARVALHO, M.R. & GOMES, U.L. (2016): Taxonomy and morphology of species of the
genus SqualusLinnaeus, 1758 from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (Chondrichthyes: Squaliformes:
Squalidae). Zootaxa, 4133 (1): 1-89
New species: Squalus lobularis, Squalus albicaudus, Squalus quasimodo, Squalus bahiensis
Abstract: Squalus is a genus of reportedly cosmopolitan shark species that have a high taxonomic
complexity due to difficulties in their morphological differentiation; many of its species need revision.
Currently, there are 26 valid species of Squalus, which have been divided into three species-groups
according to overall morphological similarity, the S. acanthiasS. megalops, and S. mitsukurii groups.
Loss of type specimens, propagation of erroneous identifications in the literature, and difficulties in
obtaining representative series for comparison are secondary challenges that have impeded a global
taxonomic revision of the genus. This problem applies clearly to species from the Southwestern Atlantic
Ocean, including species that occur off Brazil. Following a current global tendency, a regional taxonomic
revision of Squalus was conducted in order to investigate which species are valid in the Southwestern
Atlantic Ocean and provide diagnostic morphological characters that can be efficiently used for identifying
species. Comparative detailed analysis of external (e.g. morphometrics, dentition, and color pattern) and
skeletal morphology (primarily meristic data, neurocrania and claspers) of specimens of Squalus from the
region revealed four new species that are herein described (S. albicaudus sp. nov., S. bahiensis sp. nov., 
S. lobularis sp. nov., and S. quasimodo sp. nov.), as well as S. acanthias, which is redescribed from the
region based on new material. Comparisons are offered based on examinations of congeneric species;
this work is part of a global systematic revision of Squalus.

WEIGMANN, S. & STEHMANN, M.F.W. (2016): Sinobatis brevicauda n. sp., a new deep-water legskate
(Rajiformes, Anacanthobatidae) and first generic record from the western Indian Ocean. Zootaxa, 4137 (4):

New species: Sinobatis brevicauda
Abstract: A new deep-water legskate, Sinobatis brevicauda, is described based on two specimens caught
on the remote Saya de Malha Bank in the central western Indian Ocean. The new species is easily
distinguished from all other described anacanthobatids by the short tail. It is the only Sinobatis species
described from the western Indian Ocean and differs from the other anacanthobatid legskates in this area
by its large size and light coloration. All other species of Sinobatis are described from the eastern Indian
and, particularly, western Pacific oceans. In addition to the short tail, the new species clearly differs from
its morphologically closest congener, the Australian S. bulbicauda, in a bicolored white and grayish
ventral coloration with gray and white blotches (vs. uniformly pale or white and skin somewhat translucent)
and a filamentous tail without flattened, bulbous tip. Furthermore, it is distinguished by several morphometric
and meristic differences, e.g. a longer body (length 65% TL vs. 39–61% TL), longer head (dorsal length
34% TL vs. 21–31% TL, ventral length 41% TL vs. 23–36% TL), longer snout (preorbital length 28–29%
TL vs. 14–26% TL, preoral length 30% TL vs. 16–28% TL, prenasal length 28% TL vs. 14–25% TL), and
fewer diplospondylous (102–112 vs. 121–142) and total (131–141 vs. 148–168) vertebrae. S. brevicauda 
clearly differs from the other anacanthobatids in the western Indian Ocean, Anacanthobatis marmorata 
andIndobatis ori, by having a much shorter tail, strongly different coloration, much larger size, and in many
morphometric and meristic differences.

ACERO, A. & TAVERA, J.J. & ANGUILA, R. & HERNÁNDEZ, L. (2016): A New Southern Caribbean Species
of Angel Shark (Chondrichthyes, Squaliformes, Squatinidae), Including Phylogeny and Tempo of
Diversification of American Species. Copeia, 104 (2): 577-585
New species: Squatina david
Abstract: A new species of SquatinaS. david, is described from the Colombian Caribbean. The new
species differs from all the western North Atlantic angel sharks by lacking a mid-dorsal line of thorns or
enlarged dermal denticles, by having an eye-spiracle distance larger than 1.5 times eye diameter, and
each nasal flap with two rod-like barbels. Coloration is grayish to brownish yellow, males are dark-spotted,
females have abundant whitish spots. Squatina david is nested within the American clade of angel sharks,
being the sister species to the Brazilian species.

SÉRET, B. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2016): Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis, a new genus and species of wedgefish
from the eastern central Atlantic (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Rhinidae). Zootaxa, 4138 (2): 291–308
New species: Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis
Abstract: A new wedgefish, Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from three
specimens collected in the shallow waters of the shoal “Banc d’Arguin”, off Mauritania (Eastern Central
Atlantic). The new genus is mainly distinguished from its close relatives, members of the genus 
Rhynchobatus, by its snout shape, more broadly rounded like that of the shark-ray Rhina ancylostoma,
instead of being typically wedge-shaped as in Rhynchobatus species. The new species resembles the
common West African wedgefish, Rhynchobatus lubberti, in having a similar colour pattern, but differs
in snout shape. The new genus is supported as genetically distinct by comparative analysis of the
mitochondrial NADH2 gene.

WHITE, W.T. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2016): Resurrection of the family Aetobatidae (Myliobatiformes) for the
pelagic eagle rays, genusAetobatus. Zootaxa, 4139 (3): 435–438
Resurrection of the family Aetobatidae
Abstract: Molecular and morphological data show that the pelagic eagle rays of the genus Aetobatus 
form a distinct family-level grouping separate from the true eagle rays, Aetomylaeus and Myliobatis 
(family Myliobatidae). The family Aetobatidae is herein resurrected to include the pelagic eagle rays and
definitions are provided for this family and for the Myliobatidae. The key characters separating
Aetobatidae from Myliobatidae are: pectoral fins joining head at level of eyes (vs. below level of eyes),
internasal flap deeply notched (vs. nearly straight), free rear tip of pectoral fins broadly rounded
(vs. angular), spiracles dorsolateral on head and visible in dorsal view (spiracles lateral on head and not
visible in dorsal view), dorsal fin with obvious free rear tip (vs. no free rear tip evident, posterior margin
joining dorsal surface of tail).

LAST, P.R. & KYNE, P.M. & COMPAGNO, L.J.V. (2016): A new species of wedgefish Rhynchobatus cooki
(Rhinopristiformes, Rhinidae) from the Indo–West Pacific. Zootaxa, Zootaxa, 4139 (2): 233–247
New species: Rhynchobatus cooki
Abstract: A new dwarf wedgefish, Rhynchobatus cooki sp. nov. is described from a single female from a
Jakarta fish market (Indonesia) and 11 specimens collected at Jurong fish market (Singapore). First
collected in 1934, the broader ichthyological community have been aware of this distinctive but little
known ray since the late 1990’s. Rhynchobatus cooki is the smallest of the wedgefishes (to 81 cm TL) and
has the lowest vertebral count (fewer than 107 centra). It is also distinguishable from its congeners based
on its long, hastate snout, very strongly undulate anterior pectoral-fin margin, coloration and aspects of its
squamation. The dorsal coloration is mainly dark and distinctively marked with white blotches, spots and
streaks, and has a dark cruciate marking on the interorbit and a prominent white border around the body
margin. Unlike most other wedgefish species, the snout tip lacks dark blotches and there is no black
pectoral-fin marking. It shares well-developed rostral spines with a much larger Atlantic species
(Rhynchobatus luebberti), but these spines are confined to the snout tip (rather than being more numerous
and extending in paired rows along the rostral ridges nearly to the eyes). No additional specimens have
been observed since 1996, despite an increased recent effort to survey the chondrichthyan fauna of
South-East Asia and collect biological data for species, raising concerns over its conservation status.

LAST, P.R. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. & MANJAJI-MATSUMOTO, B.M. (2016): A revised classification of the family
Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights.
Zootaxa, 4139 (3): 345–368

New genera: Brevitrygon, Fluvitrygon, Fontitrygon, Maculabatis, Megatrygon, Pateobatis, Telatrygon
Abstract: The higher-level taxonomy of the stingrays (Dasyatidae) has never been comprehensively
reviewed. Recent phylogenetic studies, supported by morphological data, have provided evidence that
the group is monophyletic and consists of four major subgroups, the subfamilies Dasyatinae,
Neotrygoninae, Urogymninae and Hypolophinae. A morphologically based review of 89 currently
recognised species, undertaken for a guide to the world’s rays, indicated that most of the currently
recognised dasyatid genera are not monophyletic groups. These findings were supported by molecular
analyses using the NADH2 gene for about 77 of these species, and this topology is supported by
preliminary analyses base on whole mitochondrial genome comparisons. These molecular analyses,
based on data generated from the Chondrichthyan Tree of Life project, are the most taxon-rich data
available for this family. Material from all of the presently recognised genera (Dasyatis, Pteroplatytrygon and Taeniurops [Dasyatinae]; Neotrygon and Taeniura[Neotrygoninae]; Himantura and
 Urogymnus [Urogymninae]; and Makararaja and Pastinachus [Hypolophinae]), are included and their validity largely supported. Urogymnus and the two most species rich genera, Dasyatis and Himantura, are not considered to be monophyletic and were redefined based on external morphology. Seven new genus-level taxa are erected (Megatrygon andTelatrygon [Dasyatinae]; Brevitrygon, Fluvitrygon, Fontitrygon, Maculabatis and Pateobatis [Urogymninae], and an additional three (BathytoshiaHemitrygon and Hypanus [Dasyatinae]) are resurrected from the synonymy of Dasyatis. The monotypic genusMegatrygon clustered with ‘amphi-American Himantura’ outside the Dasyatidae, and instead as the sister group of the Potamotrygonidae and Urotrygonidae. Megatrygon is provisionally retained in the Dasyatinae pending further investigation of its internal anatomy. The morphologically divergent groups, Bathytoshia and Pteroplatytrygon, possibly form a single monophyletic group so further investigation is needed to confirm the validity of Pteroplatytrygon. A reclassification of the family Dasyatidae is provided and the above taxa are defined based on new morphological data.


The systematics of the Mongolepidida (Chondrichthyes) and the Ordovician origins of the clade. PeerJ, 4: e1850
New genus: Solinalepis
New species: Solinalepis levis
Abstract: The Mongolepidida is an Order of putative early chondrichthyan fish, originally erected to unite taxa from the Lower Silurian of Mongolia. The present study reassesses mongolepid systematics through the examination of the developmental, histological and morphological characteristics of scale-based specimens from the Upper Ordovician Harding Sandstone (Colorado, USA) and the Upper Llandovery_Lower Wenlock Yimugantawu (Tarim Basin, China), Xiushan (Guizhou Province, China) and Chargat (north-western Mongolia) Formations. The inclusion of the Mongolepidida within the Class Chondrichthyes is supported on the basis of a suite of scale attributes (areal odontode deposition, linear odontocomplex structure and lack of enamel, cancellous bone and hard-tissue resorption) shared with traditionally recognized chondrichthyans (euchondrichthyans, e.g., ctenacanthiforms). The mongolepid dermal skeleton exhibits a rare type of atubular dentine (lamellin) that is regarded as one of the diagnostic features of the Order within crown gnathostomes. The previously erected Mongolepididae and Shiqianolepidae families are revised, differentiated by scale-base histology and expanded to include the genera Rongolepis and Xinjiangichthys, respectively. A newly described mongolepid species (Solinalepis levis gen. et sp. nov.) from the Ordovician of North America is treated as family incertae sedis, as it possesses a type of basal bone tissue (acellular and vascular) that has yet to be documented in other mongolepids. This study extends the stratigraphic and palaeogeographic range of Mongolepidida and adds further evidence for an early diversification of the Chondrichthyes in the Ordovician Period, 50 million years prior to the first recorded appearance of euchondrichthyan teeth in the Lower Devonian.

SHIMADA, K. & WARD, D.J. (2016): The oldest fossil record of the megamouth shark from the late Eocene of Denmark, and comments on the enigmatic megachasmid origin. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, in press
New species: Megachasma alisonae
Abstract: The megamouth shark (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) has sporadic occurrences both in the present-day oceans and in the fossil record. In this paper, we describe a new megachasmid, Megachasma alisonae sp. nov., on the basis of a morphologically distinct tooth collected from the Pyt Member of the late Eocene Søvind Marl Formation at Moesgård Strand in Denmark, that represents the geologically oldest known Megachasma. The tooth likely came from an individual that measured somewhere between 1.3 and 3.5 m long, and its morphology and chipped cusp tips suggest that it possibly fed on macro-zooplankton and small fishes that had hard skeletal components. Its occurrence in the mid-Priabonian Pyt Member at least suggests that the shark inhabited a relatively deep, open marine environment about 36 Ma ago. This Eocene specimen is significant because it illustrates the dental condition of early megachasmids, which is distinctively odontaspidid-like morphologically.


SCHAEFFNER, B.C. (2016): Review of the genus Shirleyrhynchus Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 (Trypanorhyncha: Shirleyrhynchidae), with the resurrection of S. butlerae Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 and the description of S. panamensis n. sp.Systematic Parasitology, 93 (5): 413-430
New species: Shirleyrhynchus panamensis
Abstract: A new species of trypanorhynch cestode is described from two species of stingrays, the Panamic stingray Urotrygon aspidura (Jordan & Gilbert) and the Pacific chupare Himantura pacifica (Beebe & Tee-Van) collected in the Golfo de Montijo in the Eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Panama. Shirleyrhynchus panamensis n. sp. represents an important addition to the family, which until now consisted of two monotypic genera. The new species is characterised by an elongate scolex with four, ovate bothria, presence of prebulbar organs, absence of gland cells within the muscular bulbs and an oncotaxy with a typical heteroacanthous, heteromorphous tentacular armature, a characteristic basal armature and the presence of a slight basal swelling. It is readily distinguished from its congeners by a smaller scolex and features of the oncotaxy, such as dissimilar hooks on opposing principle rows, a commencement of hook rows from the bothrial to the antibothrial surface and a much shorter basal armature. Although described only on the basis of immature worms lacking a strobila, the new species adds information on features of the oncotaxy within Shirleyrhynchus Beveridge & Campbell, 1988. Observation of the holotype of Shirleyrhynchus aetobatidis(Shipley & Hornell, 1906) revealed apparent differences from Australian specimens that have been described as Shirleyrhynchus butlerae Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 but which were later synonymised. Observations of type-specimens of S. butlerae also revealed differences from the original description and some morphological characteristics are amended. Shirleyrhynchus butlerae is herein resurrected and an amended generic diagnosis and a key to the identification of species are provided. The molecular voucher specimen of 'S. aetobatidis' utilised in previous molecular phylogenetic studies was re-observed which revealed a misidentification of the specimen with Parachristianella indonesiensis Palm, 2004


PLEASE send your new papers to juergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.com or nicolas.straube@shark-references.com   

Latest Research Articles


Extant Chondrichthyes:

ACERO, A. & TAVERA, J.J. & ANGUILA, R. & HERNÁNDEZ, L. (2016): A New Southern Caribbean Species of Angel Shark (Chondrichthyes, Squaliformes, Squatinidae), Including Phylogeny and Tempo of Diversification of American Species. Copeia, 104 (2): 577-585   http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CI-15-292
AFONSO, A.S. & NIELLA, Y.V. & CAVALCANTI, E. & ANDRADE, M.B. & AFONSO, J.S. & PINTO, P.S. & HAZIN, F.H.V.  (2016): Spinal deformities in free-ranging bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas (Müller and Henle, 1839), from the western South Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.13125
ANDREOTTI, S. & RUTZEN, M. & VAN DER WALT, S. & VON DER HEYDEN, S. & HENRIQUES, R. & MEŸER, M. & OOSTHUIZEN, H. & MATTHEE, C.A. (2016): An integrated mark-recapture and genetic approach to estimate the population size of white sharks in South Africa. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 552: 241-253    http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps11744
BARNETT, A. & PAYNE, N.L. & SEMMENS, J.M. & FITZPATRICK, R. (2016): Ecotourism increases the field metabolic rate of whitetip reef sharks. Biological Conservation, 199: 132-136   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.05.009
BEZERRA, N.P.A. & TRAVASSOS, P. & HAZIN, F.H.V. (2016): Vulnerability to longline fisheries of three hammerhead shark Sphyrna species in the south-western and equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Fish Biology, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13062
CAMPANA, S.E. (2016): Transboundary movements, unmonitored fishing mortality, and ineffective international fisheries management pose risks for pelagic sharks in the Northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2015-0502
COCHRAN, J.E.M. & HARDENSTINE, R.S. & BRAUN, C.D. & SKOMAL, G.B. & THORROLD, S.R. & XU, K. & GENTON, M.G. & BERUMEN, M.L. (2016): Population structure of a whale shark Rhincodon typus aggregation in the Red Sea. Journal of Fish Biology, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13054
CRAWFORD, C.H. & KEMPER, J.M. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2016): Complete mitochondrial genome of the winghead shark, Eusphyra blochii (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae).   http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2016.1156488
DE BELLARD, M.E. (2016): Myelin in cartilaginous fish. Brain research, 1641 (A): 34-42  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2016.01.013
DE CARVALHO, M.R. & WHITE, W.T. (2016): Narcine baliensis, a new species of electric ray from southeast Asia (Chondrichthyes: Torpediniformes). Zootaxa, 4127 (1): 149–160    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4127.1.8
DUFFY, C.A.J.  (2016): Misidentification of Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass & Heller, 1905) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa, 4132 (1): 97–106    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4132.1.8
EHEMANN, N. & MARÍN-SANZ, J. & BARANY-GONZÁLEZ, M. (2016): Two cases of two-head shark embryos, Smalleye Smooth-Hound Mustelus higmani and the Blue Shark Prionace glauca. [Dos casos de dos cabezas en embriones de tiburón, viuda amarilla Mustelus higmani y el tiburón azul Prionace glauca.] Boletín de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, 45 (1): 149-153
ESTALLES, M.L. & CHIARAMONTE2, G.E. & FARIA, V.V. & LUZZATTO, D.C. & DÍAZ DE ASTARLOA, J.M. (2016): The southernmost range limit for the hidden angelshark Squatina occulta. Marine Biodiversity Records, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41200-016-0066-x
FEUTRY, P. & KYNE, P.M. & PENG, Z.Q. & PAN, L.H. & CHEN, X. (2016): Complete mitochondrial genome of the Freshwater Whipray Himantura dalyensis. Mitochondrial DNA, 27 (3): 1589-1590   http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2014.958682
FINGER, J.S. & DHELLEMMES, F. & GUTTRIDGE, T.L. & KURVERS, R.H.J.M. & GRUBER, S.H. & KRAUSE, J. (2016): Rate of movement of juvenile lemon sharks in a novel open field, are we measuring activity or reaction to novelty? Animal Behaviour, 116: 75-82   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.03.032
GIGLIO, V.J. & BORNATOWSKI, H. (2016): Fishers' ecological knowledge of smalleye hammerhead, Sphyrna tudes, in a tropical estuary. Neotropical Ichthyology, 14 (2): e150103   http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20150103
GUBILI, C. & MACLEOD, K. & PERRY, W. & HANEL, P. & BATZAKAS, I. & FARRELL, E.D. & LYNGHAMMAR, A. & MANCUSI, C. & MARIANI, S. & MENEZES, G.M. & NEAT, F. & SCARCELLA, G. & GRIFFITHS, A.M. (2016): Connectivity in the Deep: Phylogeography of the Velvet Belly Lanternshark. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2016.07.002
HASEGAWA, K. & KATO, A. & WATANABE, T. & TAKAGI, W. & ROMERO, M.F. & BELL, J.D. & TOOP, T. & DONALD, J.A. & HYODO, S. (2016): Sulfate transporters involved in sulfate secretion in the kidney are localized in the renal proximal tubule II of the elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii). American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 311 (1): R66-78   http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00477.2015
HENRY, L.-A. & STEHMANN, M.F.W. & DE CLIPPELE, L. & FINDLAY, H.S. & GOLDING, N. & ROBERTS, J.M.  (2016):Seamount egg-laying grounds of the deep-water skate Bathyraja richardsoni. Journal of Fish Biology, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13041
HORN, P.L. (2016): Biology of the New Zealand carpet shark Cephaloscyllium isabellum (Scyliorhinidae). Journal of Ichthyology, 56 (3): 336-347   http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0032945216030048
HORODYSKY, A.Z. & COOKE, S.J. & GRAVES, J.E. & BRILL, R.W. (2016): Fisheries conservation on the high seas: linking conservation physiology and fisheries ecology for the management of large pelagic fishes. Conservation Physiology, 4 (1): cov059  http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/conphys/cov059
JABADO, R.W. & AL GHAIS, S.M. & HAMZA, W. & ROBINSON, D.P. & HENDERSON, A.C. (2016): Biological data from sharks landed within the United Arab Emirates artisanal fishery. African Journal of Marine Science, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/1814232X.2016.1190789
KASHIWAGI, T. & KINGSLAND, K.M. & PRATT, T.C. & PRATT, H.L. & HEIST, E.J. (2016): Complete mitochondrial genome of the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum. Mitochondrial DNA Part B: Resources, 1 (1): 464-465  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2016.1186514
KEMPSTER, R.M. & EGEBERG, C.A. & HART, N.S. & RYAN, L. & CHAPUIS, L. & KERR, C.C. & SCHMIDT, C. & HUVENEERS, C. & GENNARI, E. & YOPAK, K.E. & MEEUWIG, J.J. & COLLIN, S.P. (2016): How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour. PLoS ONE, 11 (7): e0157717  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157717
KINNEY, M.J. & WELLS, R.J.D. & KOHIN, S. (2016): Oxytetracycline age validation of an adult shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus after 6 years at liberty. Journal of Fish Biology, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13044
KYNE, P.M. & COURTNEY, A.J. & JACOBSEN, I.P. & BENNETT, M.B. (2016): Reproductive parameters of rhinobatid and urolophid batoids taken as by-catch in the Queensland (Australia) east coast otter-trawl fishery: rhinobatid and urolophid reproduction. Journal of Fish Biology, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13020
LACY, E.R. & REALE, E. & LUCIANO, L. (2016): Immunohistochemical localization of renin-containing cells in two elasmobranch species. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 42 (3): 995-1004   http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-015-0191-1
LAST, P.R. & KYNE, P.M. & COMPAGNO, L.J.V. (2016): A new species of wedgefish Rhynchobatus cooki (Rhinopristiformes, Rhinidae) from the Indo–West Pacific. Zootaxa, 4139 (2): 233–247   http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4139.2.7
LAST, P.R. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. & MANJAJI-MATSUMOTO, B.M. (2016): A revised classification of the family Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights. Zootaxa, 4139 (3): 345–368    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4139.3.2
LAST, P.R. & STEWART, A.L. & SÉRET, B. (2016): A new temperate deepwater skate of the genus Bathyraja (Rajoidei: Arhynchobatidae) from the South-West Pacific. Zootaxa, 4132 (1): 107–117   http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4132.1.9
LEWIS, J.P. & PATTERSON, W.F. & CARLSON, J.K. & MCLACHLIN. K. (2016): Do vertebral chemical signatures distinguish juvenile blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) nursery regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico? Marine and Freshwater Research, 67 (7): 1014-1022   http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF15088
LYDERSEN, C. & FISK, A.T. & KOVACS, K.M. (2016): A review of Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) studies in the Kongsfjorden area, Svalbard Norway. Polar Biology, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00300-016-1949-3
MANZANARES, E. & RASSKIN-GUTMAN, D. & BOTELLA, H. (2016): New insights into the enameloid microstructure of batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 177 (3): 621–632    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12377
MONTEIRO, W.M. & DE OLIVEIRA, S.S. & DE ALMEIDA GONÇALVES SACHETT, J. & DA SILVA, I.M. & DE LIMA FERREIRA, L.C. & LACERDA, M.V.G. (2016): Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 49 (3): 389-392   http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0333-2015
NAVARRO, J. & COLL, M. & CARDADOR, L. & FERNÁNDEZ, A.M. & BELLIDO, J.M. (2016): The relative roles of the environment, human activities and spatial factors in the spatial distribution of marine biodiversity in the Western Mediterranean Sea.Progress in Oceanography, 131: 126–137   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2014.12.004
NAVIA, A.F. & CRUZ-ESCALONA, V.H. & GIRALDO, A. & BARAUSSE, A. (2016): The structure of a marine tropical food web, and its implications for ecosystem-based fisheries management. Ecological Modelling, 328: 23-33  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2016.02.009
NAVIA, A.F. & MEJÍA-FALLA, P.A. & HLEAP, J.S. (2016): Zoogeography of Elasmobranchs in the Colombian Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Neotropical Ichthyology, 14 (2): e140134   http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20140134
OROZCO-VELÁSQUEZ, D.M. & GÓMEZ-DELGADO, F. (2016): New record of Squalus cubensis Howell Rivero, 1936 (Chondrichthyes, Squalidae) in Colombia. Universitas Scientiarum, 21 (2): 159-166   http://dx.doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.SC21-2.nros
PARDO, S.A. & KINDSVATER, H.K. & REYNOLDS, J.D. & DULVY, N.K. (2016): Maximum intrinsic rate of population increase in sharks, rays, and chimaeras: the importance of survival to maturity Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 73 (8): 1159-1163   http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2016-0069
PAYNE, N.L. & IOSILEVSKII, G. & BARNETT, A. & FISCHER, C. & GLEISS, A.C. & GRAHAM, R.T. & WATANABE, Y.Y. (2016): Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs. Nature Communications, in press  
PAYNE, N.L. & IOSILEVSKII, G. & BARNETT, A. & FISCHER, C. & GRAHAM, R.T. & GLEISS, A.C. & WATANABE, Y.Y. (2016): Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs. Nature Communications, 7: 12289  http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12289
RAJAN, P.T. & VIKAS, N. & MISHRA, S.S. & RAJAN, R. & SIVAPERUMAN, C. (2016): Reef Fishes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, ISBN: 978-81-8171-432-9
RAOULT, V. & PEDDEMORS, V.M. & ZAHRA, D. & HOWELL, N. & HOWARD, D.L. & DE JONGE, M.D. & WILLIAMSON, J.E. (2016): Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae. Scientific Reports, 6: 29698    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep29698
ROBINSON, D.P. & JAIDAH, M.Y. & BACH, S. & LEE, K. & JABADO, R.W. & ROHNER, C.A. & MARCH, A. & CAPRODOSSI, S. & HENDERSON, A.C. & MAIR, J.M. & ORMOND, R. & PIERCE, S.J. (2016): Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. PLoS ONE, 11 (6): e0158593  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158593
SÁNCHEZ-FARÍAS, N. & CANDAL, E. (2016): Identification of Radial Glia Progenitors in the Developing and Adult Retina of Sharks. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 10: 65   http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2016.00065
SÉRET, B. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2016): Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis, a new genus and species of wedgefish from the eastern central Atlantic (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Rhinidae). Zootaxa, 4138 (2): 291–308   http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4138.2.4
SIEGENTHALER, A. & NIEMANTSVERDRIET, P.R.W. & LATERVEER, M. & HEITKÖNIG, I.M.A. (2016): Aversive responses of captive sandbar sharks Carcharhinus plumbeus to strong magnetic fields. Journal of Fish Biology, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13064
SPAET, J.L.Y. & NANNINGA, G.B. & BERUMEN, M.L. (2016): Ongoing decline of shark populations in the Eastern Red Sea.Biological Conservation, 201: 20–28   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.06.018
STELFOX, M. & HUDGINS, J. & SWEET, M. (2016): A review of ghost gear entanglement amongst marine mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs. Marine Pollution Bulletin, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.06.034
TRYSTRAM, C. & ROGERS, K. & SORIA, M. & JAQUEMET, S. (2016): Feeding patterns of two sympatric shark predators in coastal ecosystems of an oceanic island Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2016-0105
VALLS, E. & NAVARRO, J. & BARRÍA, C. & COLL, M. & FERNÁNDEZ-BORRÀS, J. & ROTLLANT, G. (2016): Seasonal, ontogenetic and sexual changes in lipid metabolism of the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) in deep-sea free-living conditions. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 483: 59–63   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2016.07.001
VENUGOPAL, V. & KUMARAN, A.K. & SEKHAR CHATTERJEE, N. & KUMAR, S. & KAVILAKATH, S. & NAIR, J.R. & MATHEW, S. (2016): Biochemical Characterization of Liver Oil of Echinorhinus brucus (Bramble Shark) and Its Cytotoxic Evaluation on Neuroblastoma Cell Lines (SHSY-5Y). Scientifica, 2016: 6294030   http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6294030
VIANA, S.T. & DE CARVALHO, M.R. & GOMES, U.L. (2016): Taxonomy and morphology of species of the genus Squalus Linnaeus, 1758 from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (Chondrichthyes: Squaliformes: Squalidae). Zootaxa, 4133 (1): 1-89  http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4133.1.1
VILLALOBOS, E. & MARTÍNEZ, A. & LAMBARRI, C. & ESPINOSA, H. (2016): New record of Zameus squamulosus (Chondrichthyes: Squaliformes: Somniosidae) in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biodiversity Records, 9: 61  http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41200-016-0047-0
WEIGMANN, S. & STEHMANN, M.F.W. (2016): Sinobatis brevicauda n. sp., a new deep-water legskate (Rajiformes, Anacanthobatidae) and first generic record from the western Indian Ocean. Zootaxa, 4137 (4): 478–500  http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4137.4.2
WHITE, W.T. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2016): Resurrection of the family Aetobatidae (Myliobatiformes) for the pelagic eagle rays, genus Aetobatus. Zootaxa, 4139 (3): 435–438    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4139.3.10
WILLEY, A.L. &BARKER, L.S. & SAMPSON, M. (2016): A comparison of circle hook and J hook performance in the recreational shark fishery off Maryland. Fishery Bulletin, 114 (3): 370–372   http://dx.doi.org/10.7755/FB.114.3.9

Extinct Chondrichthyes:
ANDREEV, P. & COATES, M.I. & KARATAJŪTĖ-TALIMAA, V.N. & SHELTON, R.M. & COOPER, P.R. & WANG, N.-Z. & SANSOM, I.J. (2016): The systematics of the Mongolepidida (Chondrichthyes) and the Ordovician origins of the clade. PeerJ, 4: e1850   http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1850
KÜHNDAHL, C. (2016): Ptychodus im Coniacium der Lägerdorfer Schreibkreide. Arbeitskreis Paläontologie Hannover, 44: 85–93
LADWIG, J. & POLKOWSKY, S. (2016): Der Flossenstachel eines Haies der Gattung Heterodontus (Neoselachii, Heterodontiformes) aus einem Flintgeschiebe des Daniums von Fünen. Der Geschiebesammler, 48 (4): 129-133
MERZERAUD, G. & ESSID, E. & MARZOUGUI, W. & AMMAR, H.K. & ADNET, S. & MARIVAUX, L. & TABUCE, R. & VIANEY-LIAUD, M. (2016): Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the middle Eocene Miocene marine and continental deposits in central Tunisia (Djebel el Kebar region). Bulletin De La Societe Geologique De France, 187 (1): 11-25
SHIMADA, K. & WARD, D.J. (2016): The oldest fossil record of the megamouth shark from the late Eocene of Denmark, and comments on the enigmatic megachasmid origin. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00248.2016         
TOSCANO-GRANDE, A. (2016): Vertebrados marinos del neógeno del suroeste de la Península Ibérica. Thesis, University of Huelva, Spain          


NARVÁEZ, K. & OSAER, F. (2016): The marine leech Branchellion torpedinis parasitic on the angelshark Squatina squatina and the marbled electric ray Torpedo marmorata. Marine Biodiversity, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12526-016-0535-9


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