NEWSLETTER 08/2013 23.08.2013

Please acknowledge use of the database www.shark-references.com in your publications, and cite: 

Pollerspöck, J. 2013, Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichtyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali), www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2013



         Partner in Google-Maps:                           


New images at shark-references:

Many thanks to the following persons for the permission to use their images:


Missing papers:

Many thanks to all friends of shark-references, who sent me some missing papers last month!

Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project.

Please support www.shark-references.com and send missing papers (not listed papers or papers without the infosymbol) to juergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.com.




3rd International Whale Shark Conference

Bringing the whale shark research and conservation community together
Registration and abstract submission information for the 3rd International Whale Shark Conference, to be held at the Georgia Aquarium in Atlanta USA, October 6-10, 2013

Abstracts must be submitted to info@iwsc3.info by JULY 1, 2013
Abstracts will be considered as candidates for either oral or author-attended poster sessions.  Authors should state their preference in the email accompanying the submission, but the Scientific Program Committee will make the final determination

For more information please visit: http://iwsc3.info/

EEA Conference 2013

The Shark Trust is delighted to be hosting the 17th European Elasmobranch Association (EEA) conference in Plymouth this November. Plymouth is a centre of marine excellence and the Trust is pleased to announce the conference will be hosted in association with the Marine Institute of Plymouth University and the National Marine Aquarium.

for more information please visit: 


The OCS Conference Organising Committee would like to extend an invitation to attend the

4th Oceania Chondrichthyan Society Conference

to be held at

Royal on the Park 
Brisbane, Australia


19th-20th September 2013

for more information please visit: http://www.oceaniasharks.org.au/OCS-Conference/2013.aspx


News from shark-references and partner:

A review of the fossil Echinorhinidae (species descriptions, distribution)

Distribution of fossil Echinorhinidae

A review of the fossil Chlamydoselachidae (species descriptions, distribution)

Distribution of fossil Chlamydoselachidae

In preperation:

A review of the fossil Heptranchidae (species descriptions, distribution)
Heptranchias ezoensis
Heptranchias karagalensis
Heptranchias sp.
Paraheptranchias repens

Please send your images of fossil Echinorhinidae, Chlamydoselachidae and Heptranchidae to shark-references and inform me about new findings!

New book:

Sharks of the World – A fully illustrated guide

Sharks of the World is the essential book for everyone interested in sharks, from the expert requiring a major reference work, to the layperson fascinated by their beauty, biology and diversity.

Packed with unique colour illustrations, line drawings and photographs, well-presented and easy to use, this book is currently the only single guide to cover over 500 of the world’s shark species. It incorporates the most recent taxonomic revisions of many shark families, featuring not only many species that were only described in recent years, but several more that are still awaiting their scientific names.
For more information: http://www.wildnaturepress.com/our-titles/sharks-of-the-world-7/


New book:


List of fishes of the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Caspian Sea by Tooraj Valinassab, Head of Marine Resource Management Div., Iranian Fisheries Research Organization

1)      Introduction of “Orders” of fishes of Persian Gulf, Oman Sea & Caspian Sea with related “Families”
2)      Introduction of 860 species of the fishes of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in order of Scientific Name; with mention of English Name, Family,….
3)      Introduction of 860 species of the fishes of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in order of English Name; with mention of Scientific Name, Family, ….
4)      Introduction of 136 species of fishes of the Caspian Sea in order of Scientific Name; with mention of English Name, Family, ….
5)      Introduction of 136 species of fishes of the Caspian Sea in order of English Name; with mention of Scientific Name, Family, ….
6)      Introduction of different “Families “of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea ; with mention of related species
7)      Introduction of different “Families” of the Caspian Sea ; with mention of related species

For more information please contact Tooraj Valinassab

Free download:

Thanks a lot to Jan Fischer for this great poster!

Stratigraphic record, producer assignment and phylogeny of chondrichthyan egg capsule morphotypes.

english version                                    german version


New described species/Taxonomic News:


ALLEN, G.R. & ERDMANN, M.V. & DUDGEON, C.L. (2013) Hemiscyllium halmahera, a new species of Bamboo Shark (Hemiscylliidae) from Indonesia. Aqua, International Journal of Ichyology, 19 (3): 123-136

New species: Hemiscyllium halmahera
Abstract: Hemiscyllium halmahera new species is described from two specimens, 656-681 mm TL, collected at Ternate, Halmahera, Indonesia. The new species is clearly differentiated on the basis of colour pattern. Its features include a general brown colouration with numerous clusters of mainly 2-3 dark polygonal spots, widely scattered white spots in the matrix between dark clusters, relatively few (< 10), large dark spots on the interorbital/snout region, a pair of large dark marks on the ventral surface of the head, and a fragmented post-cephalic mark consisting of a large U-shaped dark spot with a more or less continuous white margin on the lower half, followed by a vertical row of three, smaller clusters of 2-3 polygonal dark marks. The new species is most similar in general appearance to H. galei from Cenderawasih Bay, West Papua, which differs in having 7-8 large, horizontally elongate dark spots on the lower side between the abdomen and caudal-fin base, a cluster of solid dark post-cephalic spots, and usually about 25 dark spots on the upper surface of the head.

VAZ, D.F.B. & DE CARVALHO, M.R. (2013) Morphological and taxonomic revision of species of Squatina from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (Chondrichthyes: Squatiniformes: Squatinidae). Zootaxa, 3695 (1): 1-81

New junior synonym: Squatina punctata is a synonym of Squatina guggenheim
Abstract: The morphology and taxonomy of species of Squatina from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean are revised. Species previously considered valid, Squatina argentina (Marini, 1930), Squatina guggenheim Marini, 1936 and Squatina occulta Vooren and da Silva, 1991, are investigated and described in detail, including a morphometric and meristic study of specimens from their recorded range. The taxonomic status of the doubtful nominal species Squatina punctata Marini, 1936 was also evaluated. This species was previously considered a junior synonym of S. argentina, a junior synonym of S. guggenheim, or a senior synonym of S. occulta. Although there is much morphological similarity between Squatina species, significant differences in dermal denticle patterns, dorsal coloration, tooth formula, and size at maturity are reported, enabling the recognition of S. argentina, S. guggenheim and S. occulta as valid species, and relegating S. punctata to the synonymy of S. guggenheim. Differences in skeletal morphology between valid species are described and considered supportive of the taxonomic hypothesis, corroborating a previous study of neurocrania. Additionally, an unidentified specimen is reported, as Squatina sp., from the continental shelf of Bahia state, Brazil, recognized by having more vertebral centra and a conspicuous dermal denticle morphology on interspiracular region, features not present in other South America angelshark species. A report on the only known syntype of Squatina dumeril Le Sueur, 1818 is presented, describing features that are still preserved and designating it as lectotype. Lateral-line sensory canals, skeleton, and cranial and hypobranchial muscles for the three valid species of Squatina from the southwestern Atlantic, as well as the brain and cranial nerves of S. guggenheim, are described and illustrated.


CAIRA, J.N. & MARQUES, F.P.L. & JENSEN, K. & KUCHTA, R. & IVANOV, V. (2013) Phylogenetic analysis and reconfiguration of genera in the cestode order Diphyllidea. International Journal for Parasitology, 43 (8): 621–639

New  generaCoronocestus, Halysioncum
Abstract: The generic boundaries of the Diphyllidea are reassessed based on parsimony and likelihood phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA (ribonucleic acid large subunit), 18S rDNA (ribonucleic acid small subunit), and COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) sequence data for 31 species representing morphological variation across the order. Trees resulting from these analyses yielded a number of well-supported clades that are congruent with unique morphological features mandating generic revision of the order and erection of at least two new genera. Species originally assigned to Echinobothriumvan Beneden, 1849 but bearing a corona of spines on the region of the scolex anterior to the bothria and posterior to the apical organ armature are transferred to Coronocestus n. gen.; members of this genus typically parasitize triakid sharks, although one report from a hemiscylliid shark exists. Species with lateral hooklets arranged in continuous bands, rather than in two distinct clusters, are transferred to Halysioncum n. gen.; all species parasitize batoids, mostly myliobatids and rhinopterids, but a few records also exist from arhynchobatids, rhinobatids, platyrhinids and urotrygonids. Our analyses support transfer of the five species originally assigned to MacrobothridiumKhalil and Abdul-Salam, 1989 owing to their lack of cephalic peduncle spines to Echinobothrium. As a consequence, Echinobothrium sensu stricto includes species both with and without spines on the cephalic peduncle, but all members of the genus possess lateral hooklets arranged in clusters on either side of the dorsal and ventral apical hooks. With respect to diphyllideans parasitizing catsharks, AhamulinaMarques, Jensen and Caira, 2012 is unique in possessing apical hooks but lacking lateral hooklets and DitrachybothridiumRees, 1959 is unique in entirely lacking scolex armature. By far the majority of species of Echinobothrium sensu stricto parasitize skates of the family Rajidae, guitarfish of the family Rhinobatidae, and stingrays of the dasyatid genera Taeniura Müller and Henle, Dasyatis Rafinesque, and Himantura Müller and Henle, although a single species each has been reported from Anacanthobatidae, Rhynchobatidae, Platyrhinidae and Myliobatidae. It now seems clear that while by far the majority of diphyllideans parasitize batoids, the diphyllideans parasitizing sharks, and catsharks in particular, remain problematic. Additional collections from these carcharhiniform hosts are likely to be particularly illuminating.

HASELI, M. (2013) Trypanorhynch cestodes from elasmobranchs from the Gulf of Oman, with the description of Prochristianella garshaspi n. sp. (Eutetrarhynchidae).Systematic Parasitology, 85 (3): 271-279

New  speciesProchristianella garshaspi
Abstract: In a study on the order Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863, a total of 35 specimens belonging to nine species of elasmobranch in the Gulf of Oman, was examined. The following trypanorhynch species were identified: Pterobothrium lesteri Campbell & Beveridge, 1996, Otobothrium carcharidis (Shipley & Hornell, 1906), Eutetrarhynchus platycephali Palm, 2004, Parachristianella indonesiensis Palm, 2004, Pa. monomegacantha Kruse, 1959 and Prochristianella mooreae Beveridge, 1990. Prochristianella garshaspi n. sp. is described from Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) and Rhinoptera sp. The new species is allocated to the genus Prochristianella Dollfus, 1946 on the basis of the presence of two bothria, prebulbar organs, and a heteroacanthous typical tentacular armature with relatively few hooks in each principal row, hollow hooks increasing in size from antibothrial and then decreasing towards the bothrial surface of the tentacle, hooks 1 and 1′ being separated, and a basal swelling with characteristic billhooks increasing in size towards the bothrial surface. The lack of microscopically visible microtriches on the scolex distinguishes the new species from P. hispida (Linton, 1890), P. clarkeae Beveridge, 1990, P. thalassia (Kovaks & Schmidt, 1980), P. multidum Friggens & Duszynski, 2005 and P. cairae Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2012. Prochristianella garshaspi n. sp. can be distinguished from the remaining species within the genus by a combination of the following morphological features: the presence of numerous gland-cells within the tentacular bulbs, the number of rows on the basal swelling, the number of hooks per half spiral row, the size of the principal hooks, the number of the testes and the presence of an external seminal vesicle.


CAPPETTA, H. & GAYET, M. (2013) A new elasmobranch genus (Myliobatiformes, Dasyatoidea) from the Danian of Potosí (Bolivia). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 269 (3): 285-290
New genus: Potobatis
New species: Potobatis semperei
Abstract: Potobatis semperei gen. et sp. nov. sp. (Myliobatiformes, Dasyatoidea) comes from a level located at the top of the section of the El Molino Formation at La Palca, near Potosí. This level is Danian in age according to magnetostratigraphic studies. Close to the African genus Hypolophites (Dasyatoidea, Dasyatidae) by its dental morphology, the new genus differs from the latter by its much smaller size and by its less specialized dentition. The palaeoenvironment was probably an estuarine or a mangrove area.
COOK, T.D. & WILSON, M.V.H. & MURRAY, A.M. & PLINT, A.G. & NEWBREY, M.G. & EVERHART, M.J. (2013) A high latitude euselachian assemblage from the early Turonian of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 11 (5): 555-587 
New species: Odontaspis watinensis
Abstract: Numerous isolated euselachian teeth were recovered from the early Turonian Kaskapau Formation situated in northwestern Alberta, Canada. This high palaeolatitude assemblage was collected from a sandstone lens along the bank of the Smoky River, and includes 16 species belonging to at least three orders, at least 11 families, and 15 genera. Here we describe Odontaspis watinensis sp. nov. and report the first Canadian occurrence of Polyacrodus sp., Scapanorhynchus sp., and Carcharias aff. C. striatula. The scarcity of benthic taxa in this assemblage supports the previous notion that bottom waters in this region of the Western Interior Seaway experienced enduring anoxic episodes. By comparing the faunal composition of this assemblage with that of middle Cenomanian Canadian assemblages, we show that seven species have a biostratigraphical range that extended across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in the northern region of the seaway. Of the taxa described herein, Archaeolamna ex. gr. kopingensis, Cardabiodon aff. C. ricki, Carcharias aff. C. striatula, Odontaspis watinensis, and Johnlongia parvidens have not been reported from deposits of the southernmost region of the seaway and may have been restricted to cooler waters.

PLA, C. & MÁRQUEZ-ALIAGA, A. & BOTELLA, H. (2013) The Chondrichthyan Fauna from the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) of the Iberian Range (Spain). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33 (4): 770-785 
New genus: Prolatodon
New species: Hybodus bugarensis
Abstract: Here we present for the first time a detailed taxonomic study of a diverse chondrichthyan fauna from the Middle Triassic of the Iberian Range (Spain). The assemblage consists of isolated remains of seven species of five non-neoselachian shark genera (Palaeobates, Hybodus, Pseudodalatias, Prolatodon, gen. nov., and Lissodus), including a new species of hybodontiform shark, Hybodus bugarensis, sp. nov. In addition, a new homalodontid genus, Prolatodon, sp. nov., is erected for the taxa ‘Polyacrodus’ bucheri and ‘Polyacrodus’ contrarius. The chondrichthyans of the Iberian Range represent a heterogeneous group from a paleogeographic point of view made up of common components of Middle Triassic shark faunas of northern Europe (Hybodus plicatilis and Palaeobates angustisimus) together with species only known previously from North America and China (Prolatodon bucheri, comb. nov., and Prolatodon contrarius, comb. nov.), as well as several ‘endemic’ taxa (Pseudodalatias henarejensis, Hybodus bugarensis, sp. nov., and Lissodus aff. L. lepagei). This fauna demonstrated adaptation for a wide diversity of feeding strategies, implying that non-neoselachian sharks dominated among the predator community of Middle Triassic coastal ecosystems of Iberia. The co-occurrence with bivalves, ammonoids, and conodonts allows us to date the chondrichthyan assemblage as ‘Longobardian’ (upper Ladinian).

POTVIN-LEDUC, D. & CLOUTIER, R. & LANDING, E. & VAN ALLER HERNICK, L. & MANNOLINI, F. (2013) Middle Devonian (Givetian) sharks from Cairo, New York (USA): Evidence of early cosmopolitanism. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, in press 
New species: Portalodus mannoliniae
Abstract: Whereas cosmopolitan distribution patterns are established for many Late Devonian vertebrates (e.g. placoderms, onychodontiforms), few palaeobiogeographic studies have considered chondrichthyans. Recent discoveries of shark material demonstrate that some chondrichthyans were cosmopolitan by the Middle Devonian. Abundant Givetian microremains have been recovered from the Cairo quarry in eastern New York State, USA. These include teeth of two shark species with Gondwanan affinities, the omalodontid Portalodus mannoliniae sp. nov. and the antarctilamnid Wellerodus priscus. Abundant teeth of P. mannoliniae sp. nov. are characterized by a smooth diplodont crown, polarized cusps, and a labially oriented base. The teeth demonstrate monognathic heterodonty. The juvenile morph is distinguished from the adult by smaller size, slender cusps, and variation in the shape of the base. W. priscus is represented by rare juvenile teeth. Two groups of scales that show affinity to material from northern (Spain) and East Gondwana (Antarctica) are tentatively attributed to the two described species. Antarctilamnid distribution suggests a north Gondwanan origin and a colonization of the margin of the landmass before dispersing to Laurentia by the Middle Devonian. This material further indicates that vertebrate global dispersal was initiated by the Middle Devonian, and emphasizes earlier palaeogeographic interpretations that the Middle Devonian “Hamilton fauna” of North American Laurussia originated in the Early Devonian in South American Gondwana.

New Paper

Recent Papers:

AKYOL, O. & AYDIN, I. & GULSAHIN, A. & KARA, A. (2013) Records of three uncommon fishes from Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 29 (4): 925-926   http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.12173
ALI, M. & SAAD, A. & REYNAUD, C. & CAPAPÉ, C. (2013) First records of the Round Fantail Stingray, Taeniura grabata (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae), off the Syrian coast (eastern Mediterranean). Zoology in the Middle East, 59 (2): 176-178  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2013.810883
ALLEN, G.R. & ERDMANN, M.V. & DUDGEON, C.L. (2013) Hemiscyllium halmahera, a new species of Bamboo Shark (Hemiscylliidae) from Indonesia. Aqua, International Journal of Ichyology, 19 (3): 123-136 
ANDRAKA, S. & MUG, M. & HALL, M. & PONS, M. & PACHECO, L. & PARRALES, M. & RENDON, L. & PARGA, M.L. & MITUHASI, T. & SEGURA, A. & ORTEGA, D. & VILLAGRAN, E. & PEREZ, S. & DE PAZ, C. & SIU, S. & GADEA, V. & CAICEDO, J. & ZAPATA, L.A. & MARTINEZ, J. & GUERRERO, P. & VALQUI, M. & VOGEL, N. (2013) Circle hooks: Developing better fishing practices in the artisanal longline fisheries of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Biological Conservation, 160: 214-224  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.01.019
BEJARANO-ESCOBAR, R. & BLASCO, M. & DURÁN, A.C. & MARTÍN-PARTIDO, G. & FRANCISCO-MORCILLO, J. (2013) Chronotopographical distribution patterns of cell death and of lectin-positive macrophages/microglial cells during the visual system ontogeny of the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Anatomy, 223 (2): 171-184   http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12071
BEN BACHE, A. & DAIHAN, S.K. & MOUBAYED, N.M.S. & MEJDOUB, H. (2013)Purification and characterization of a phospholipase A2-IIA from common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) intestine. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 50 (3): 186-195 
BILECENOGLU, M. & EKSTROM, L.J. (2013) Pelvic fin walking and punting behaviour of Raja radula Delaroche, 1809 observed in the Sea of Marmara.Mediterranean Marine Science, 14 (1): 158-161   http://dx.doi.org/10.12681/mms.333
BOSCH, A.C. & SIGGE, G.O. & KERWATH, S.E. & CAWTHORN, D.-M. & HOFFMAN, L.C. (2013) The effects of gender, size and life-cycle stage on the chemicalcomposition of smoothhound shark (Mustelus mustelus) meat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93 (10): 2384-2392  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6100
BRADSHAW, C.J.A. & FIELD, I.C. & MCMAHON, C.R. & JOHNSON, G.J. & MEEKAN, M.G. & BUCKWORTH, R.C. (2013) More analytical bite in estimating targets for shark harvest. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 488: 221-232  http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps10375
BRANCH, T.A. & LOBO, A.S. & PURCE, S.W. (2013) Opportunistic exploitation: an overlooked pathway to extinction. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 28 (7): 409-413  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.03.003
CARLSON, J.K. & GULAK, S.J.B. & SIMPFENDORFER, C.A. & GRUBBS, R.D. & ROMINE, J.G. & BURGESS, G.H. (2013) Movement patterns and habitat use of smalltooth sawfish, Pristis pectinata, determined using pop-up satellite archival tags.Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2382
CHIN, A. & SIMPFENDORFER, C. & TOBIN, A. & HEUPEL, M. (2013) Validated age, growth and reproductive biology of Carcharhinus melanopterus, a widely distributed and exploited reef shark. Marine and Freshwater Research, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF13017
CLARKE, E.O. & DORN, B. & BOONE, A. & RISATTI, G. & GILBERT-MARCHETERRE, K. & HARMS, C.A. (2013) Mycobacteriosis, Mycobacterium chelonae, in a Captive Yellow Stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44 (2): 470-474   http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2012-0018R2.1
COLONELLO, J.H. & CHRISTIANSEN, H.E. & COUSSEAU, M.B. & MACCHI, G.J. (2013) Uterine dynamics of the southern eagle ray Myliobatis goodei (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae) from the southwest Atlantic Ocean. Italian Journal of Zoology, 80 (2): 187-194   http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11250003.2012.742146
DE OLIVEIRA, J.A.A. & ELLIS, J.R. & DOBBY, H. (2013) Incorporating density dependence in pup production in a stock assessment of NE Atlantic spurdog Squalus acanthias. ICES Journal of Marine Science, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fst080
DOS SANTOS TAMBOURGI, M.R. & HAZIN, F.H.V. & OLIVEIRA, P.G.V. & COELHO, R. & BURGESS, G. & ROQUE, P.C.G. (2013) Reproductive aspects of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae), in the equatorial and southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, 61 (2): 161-168   http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-87592013000200008
EBERT, D.A. & FOWLER, S. & COMPAGNO, L.J.V. (2013) Sharks of the World – A fully illustrated guide. Wild Nature Press, ISBN 978-0-9573946-0-5: 528pp  
FIELD, I.C. & TILLETT, B.J. & CHARTERS, R. & JOHNSON, G.J. & BUCKWORTH, R.C. & MEEKAN, M.G. & BRADSHAW, C.J.A. (2013) Distribution, relative abundance and risks from fisheries to threatened Glyphis sharks and sawfishes in northern Australia. Endangered Species Research, 21 (2): 171-180  http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr00513
FOX, S. & FOISY, I. & DE LA PARRA VENEGAS, R. & GALVÁN PASTORIZA, B.E. & GRAHAM, R.T. & HOFFMAYER, E.R. & HOLMBERG, J. & PIERCE, S.J. (2013)Population structure and residency of whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Utila, Bay Islands, Honduras. Journal of Fish Biology, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12195
GELSLEICHTER, J. & SZABO, N.J. (2013) Uptake of human pharmaceuticals in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) inhabiting a wastewater-impacted river. Science of the Total Environment, 456-457: 196-201   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.078
GLEISS, A.C. & WRIGHT, S. & LIEBSCH, N. & WILSON, R.P. & NORMAN, B. (2013) Contrasting diel patterns in vertical movement and locomotor activity of whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef. Marine Biology, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-013-2288-3
GORNI, G.R. & GOITEIN, R. & AMORIM, A.F.D. (2013) Description of diet of pelagic fish in the southwestern Atlantic, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 13 (1): 61-69  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032013000100006  
GRIFFITHS, A.M. & MILLER, D.D. & EGAN, A. & FOX, J. & GREENFIELD, A. & MARIANI, S. (2013) DNA barcoding unveils skate (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) species diversity in ‘ray’ products sold across Ireland and the UK. PeerJ, 1: e129  http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.129
HANSEN, C. (2013) Biological profiles: Atlantic angel shark. Retrieved on 19 August 2013, from www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/AtlanticAngel/AtlanticAngel.htmlIchthyology at the Florida Museum of Natural History: Education-Biological Profiles. FLMNH, University of Florida 
HENRY, L.-A. & NAVAS, J.M. & HENNIGE, S.J. & WICKS, L.C. & VAD, J. & ROBERTS, J.M. (2013) Cold-water coral reef habitats benefit recreationally valuable sharks. Biological Conservation, 161: 67-70  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.03.002
HILTING, A.K. & CURRIN, C.A. & KOSAKI, R.K. (2013) Evidence for benthic primary production support of an apex predator–dominated coral reef food web. Marine Biology, 160 (7): 1681-1695   http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-013-2220-x
HOGAN, F. & CADRIN, S. & HAYGOOD, A. (2013) Fishery Management Complexes: An Impediment or Aid to SustainableHarvest? A Discussion Based on the Northeast Skate Complex. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 33 (2): 406-421  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02755947.2013.763873
JAMES, K.C. & EBERT, D.A. & NATANSON, L.J. & CAILLIET, G.M. (2013) Age and growth characteristics of the Starry Skate, Raja stellulata, with a description of life history and habitat trends of the central California, U.S.A., skate assemblage.Environmental Biology of Fishes, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10641-013-0164-0  
KIZHAKUDAN, S.J. & RAJAPACKIAM, S. & YOUSUF, K.S.S.M & VASU, R. (2013)First report of the shortfin mako sharks Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) in commercial landings at Madras Fisheries Harbour. Marine Fisheries Information Service, T&E Ser., 216: 19   
KOBELKOWSKY, A. (2013) Morphology of the digestive system of the smooth butterfly ray Gymnura micrura (Batoidea: Gymnuridae). [Morfología del sistema digestivo de la raya mariposa Gymnura micrura (Batoidea: Gymnuridae).] Boletin de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, 42 (1): 57-71  
KOVALENKO, O.V. & OLLAND, A. & PICHÉ-NICHOLAS, N. & GODBOLE, A. & KING, D. & SVENSON, K. & CALABRO, V. & MÜLLER, M.R. & BARELLE, C.J. & SOMERS, W. & GILL, D.S. & MOSYAK, L. & TCHISTIAKOVA, L. (2013) Atypical Antigen Recognition Mode of a Shark Immunoglobulin New Antigen Receptor (IgNAR) Variable Domain Characterized by Humanization and Structural Analysis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288: 17408-17419   http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.435289  
LI, R. & WANG, T. & BIRD, S. & ZOU, J. & DOOLEY, H. & SECOMBES, C.J. (2013)B cell receptor accessory molecule CD79α: Characterisation and expression analysis in a cartilaginous fish, the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 34 (6): 1404-1415   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2013.02.015  
MARRANZINO, A. (2013) The Use of Positive Reinforcement in Training Zebra Sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 16 (3): 239-253  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10888705.2013.798555
MATICH, P. & HEITHAUS, M.R. (2013) Multi-tissue stable isotope analysis and acoustic telemetry reveal seasonal variability in the trophic interactions of juvenile bull sharks in a coastal estuary. Journal of Animal Ecology, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12106  
MOREL, G.M. & SHRIVES, J. & BOSSY, S.F. & MEYER, C.G. (2013) Residency and behavioural rhythmicity of ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) and rays (Raja spp.) captured in Portelet Bay, Jersey: implications for Marine Protected Area design. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 93 (5): 1407-1414  http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412001725
MOURIER, J. & BURAY, N. & SCHULTZ, J.K. & CLUA, E. & PLANES, S. (2013)Genetic Network and Breeding Patterns of a Sicklefin Lemon Shark (Negaprion acutidens) Population in the Society Islands, French Polynesia. PLoS ONE, 8 (8): e73899   http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073899  
MUNDY-TAYLOR, V. & CROOK ,V. (2013) Into the deep: Implementing CITES measures for commercially-valuable sharks and manta rays. Report prepared for the European Commission, ISBN 978-1-85850-357-8  
NOSAL, A.P. & LEWALLEN, E.A. & BURTON, R.S. (2013) Multiple paternity in leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) litters sampled from a predominantly female aggregation in La Jolla, California, USA. Ecology, 446: 110–114  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2013.05.002  
PRADEL, A. & DIDIER, D. & CASANE, D. & TAFFOREAU, P. & MAISEY, J.G. (2013)Holocephalan Embryo Provides New Information on the Evolution of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve, Metotic Fissure and Parachordal Plate in Gnathostomes.PLoS ONE, 8 (6): e66988   http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066988  
RENZ, A.J. & MEYER, A. & KURAKU, S. (2013) Revealing Less Derived Nature of Cartilaginous Fish Genomes with Their Evolutionary Time Scale Inferred with Nuclear Genes. PLoS ONE, 8 (6): e66400   http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066400  
RICE, J. & HARLEY, S. (2013) Updated stock assessment of Silky Sharks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Doc. Nr. WCPFC-SC9-2013/ SA-WP-03   
ROBBINS, W.D. & PEDDEMORS, V.M. & BROADHURST, M.K. & GRAY, C.A. (2013) Hooked on fishing? Recreational angling interactions with the Critically Endangered grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus in eastern Australia. Endangered Species Research, 21 (2): 161-170   http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr00520  
RODRIGUEZ, C. & SANS-COMA, V. & GRIMES, A.C. & FERNANDEZ, B. & ARQUE, J.M. & DURÁN, A.C. (2013) Embryonic development of the bulbus arteriosus of the primitive heart of jawed vertebrates. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 252 (3): 359-366   
SEQUEIRA, A.M.M. & MELLIN, C. & FORDHAM, D.A. & MEEKAN, M.G. & BRADSHAW, C.J.A. (2013) Predicting current and future global distributions of whale sharks. Global Change Biology, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12343  
SHIBUYA, A. & ZUANON, J. (2013) Catfishes as prey items of Potamotrygonid stingrays in the Solimões and Negro rivers, Brazilian Amazon. Biota Neotropica, 13 (1): 376-379   http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032013000100041   
TAGLIAFICO, A. & RAGO, N. & RANGEL, M.S. (2013) Pesquería y biología de Rhinobatos percellens (Rajiformes: Rhinobatidae) capturados por la pesquería artesanal de playa La Pared, Venezuela. [Fishery and biology of Rhinobatos percellens (Rajiformes: Rhinobatidae) caught by the artisanal fishery at La Pared beach, Venezuela.] Revista de Biologia Tropical, 61 (1): 149-160   
TAVARES, W. & DA SILVA RODRIGUES-FILHO, L.F. & SODRE, D. & SOUZA, R.F.C. & SCHNEIDER, H. & SAMPAIO, I. & VALLINOTO, M. (2013) Multiple substitutions and reduced genetic variability in sharks. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 49: 21-29   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2013.02.004  
TOMITA, T. & TODA, M. & YAMAMOTO, Y. & SATO, K. & UCHIDA, S. & NAKAYA, K. (2013) A novel pharyngeal expansion mechanism in the yellow-spotted fanray, Platyrhina tangi (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea), with special reference to the function of the fifth ceratobranchial cartilage in batoids. Zoomorphology, 132 (3): 317-324  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00435-012-0185-9  
TÜRKMEN, M. & TEPE, Y. & TÜRKMEN, A. & SANGÜN, M.K. & ATEŞ, A. & GENÇ, E. (2013) Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Various Tissues of Six Ray Species from İskenderun Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean Sea. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 90 (6): 702-707  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-013-0978-7
VAZ, D.F.B. & DE CARVALHO, M.R. (2013) Morphological and taxonomic revision of species of Squatina from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (Chondrichthyes: Squatiniformes: Squatinidae). Zootaxa, 3695 (1): 1-81  http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3695.1.1  
VÉLEZ-ALAVEZ, M. & LABRADA-MARTAGÓN, V. & MÉNDEZ-RODRIGUEZ, L.C. & GALVÁN-MAGAÑA, F. & ZENTENO-SAVÍN, T. (2013) Oxidative stress indicators and trace element concentrations in tissues of mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus).Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 165: 508–514   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.03.006
WONG, S.Z.H. & CHING, B. & CHNG, Y.R. & WONG, W.P. & CHEW, S.F. & IP, Y.K. (2013) Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis and Brackish Water Acclimation in the Euryhaline Freshwater White-Rimmed Stingray, Himantura signifer. PLoS ONE, 8 (6): e66691  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066691  
WOSNICK, N. & FREIRE, C.A. (2013) Some euryhalinity may be more common than expected in marine elasmobranchs: The example of the South American skate Zapteryx brevirostris (Elasmobranchii, Rajiformes, Rhinobatidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 166: 36–43  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.05.002
YANG, B. & ZHANG, J. & YAMAGUCHI, A. & ZHANG, B. (2013) Mitochondrial genome of Dasyatis bennettii (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae). Mitochondrial DNA, 24 (4): 344-346   http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2012.760552  
ZHANG, V. & DU PASQUIER, L. & HSU, E. (2013) Shark IgW C Region Diversification through RNA Processing and Isotype Switching. Journal of Immunology, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1301257  

Recent Papers -Abstracts-:

CAPIETTO, A. & CHAVANCE, P. & PIANET, R. & DE MOLINA, A.D. & MURUA, H. & FLOCH, L. & DAMIANO, A. & MERIQOT, B. (2013) Hotspots of interactions between whale sharks, marine mammals and tropical tuna purse seine fishery in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 149 
CORRIGAN, S. & STRAUBE, N. & LI, C. & ROCHEL, E. & ROSANA, K. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2013) Jaws for the Tree of Life: Taxon-rich estimates of chondrichthyan phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Abstract.9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 22 
COSCIA, M.R. & COCCA, E. & GIACOMELLI, S. & CUCCARO, F. & ORESTE, U. (2013) Investigations on immunoglobulin from Antarctic skates. Abstract. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 34 (6): 1702   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2013.03.199
DE CARVALHO, M.R. & SOARES, M.C. & LAURINI, C.R. & DA SILVA, J.P.C.B. & VAZ, D.F.B. & VIANA, S.T.F. & LOBODA, T. & DA SILVA, J.P.F.A.F. & RAGNO, M.P. & PETEAN, F.F. & SHIBUYA, A. & YOKOTA, L. & CARVALHO, M. & MINELLI, J.B. & SOARES, W. & CASAS, A. & MOREIRA, R.A. & GOMES, U.L. (2013) Phylogenetic relationships among major groups of living elasmobranchs: a morphological perspective Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 25 
DE FIGUEIREDO, S.T.V. & DE CARVALHO, M.R. & RAMOS, S.G.A.C. & GOMES, U.L. (2013) Cranial morphology of Cirrhigaleus asper (Merrett, 1973) and its implications for the systematics of the family Squalidae (Chondrichthyes: Squaliformes). Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 26 
ESPINOZA, M. & HEUPEL, M.R. & SIMPFENDORFER, C.A. (2013) Predicting MPA utilization for reef-associated sharks: an individual-based simulation approach. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 150 
GILLAND, E. & RAHMAT, S. (2013) Anatomy and development of brainstem vasculature in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias. Abstract FASEB Journal, 27 (Meeting Abstracts): 745.1 
HARRISON, L.R. & DULVY, N.K. & SIMPFENDORFER, C.A. & SAWFISH NETWORK (2013) Ghosts of the coast: A first step toward understanding the ecosystem role of sawfishes. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 148 
HARTUP, J. & MARSHELL, A. & STEVENS, G. & KOTTERMAIR, M. & CARLSON, P. (2013) Marine megafauna, Manta alfredi target multispecies surgeonfish spawning aggregations as a food source. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 147 
LAST, P.R. (2013) Rays: a guide to the world's fauna. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 25 
LI, C. & HOFREITER, M. & STRAUBE, N. & CORRIGAN, S. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2013) Capturing protein-coding genes across divergent species and its implication in evolutionary biology. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 24 
LU, S. & ZHANG, N. & CHEN, R. & XIA, C. (2013) Crystal structure of nurse shark β2-microglobulin: Insights into the evolutionary origin of immunoglobulin superfamily constant. Abstract. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 34 (6): 1662  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2013.03.088
MAISEY, J.G. & BALANOFF, A. & PRADEL, A. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. & CRAWFORD, C. & FUSSELL, T. (2013) Scanning and Segmentation of Chondrichthyan Skeletons for the Tree of Life: a Progress Report. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 23 
MARSHALL, L. (2013) Gould and Me and the Tree of Life: Illustrating the world's shark and ray species. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 23 
MENARD, F. & SIMIER, M. & POTIER, M. & MERIGOT, B. & ROMANOV, E. & BACH, P. (2013) Pelagic diversity highlighted by longline fisheries in the Indian Ocean. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 149 
MERIGOT, B. & LAUGIER, F. & POTIER, M. & SIMIER, M. & MENARD, F. (2013)Functional diversity of large top predator fish community: monsoon matters in the Indian Ocean. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 147 
MUNEVAR, C.L. & ROA, J.N. & TRESGUERRES, M. (2013) Acid and base secreting cells in leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) gills: mitochondrial richness, ATPase specificity, and vacuolar H+ ATPase (VHA) translocation. Abstract. FASEB Journal, 27 (Meeting Abstracts): 937.4 
NAYLOR, G.J.P. & CORRIGAN, S. & DAVIES, J. & HOFREITER, M. & LAST, P. & LI, C. & MAISEY, J. & MARSHALL, L. & STRAUBE, N. & WHITE, W. (2013) The Chondrichthyan Tree of Life Project. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 22 
SIMPFENDORFER, C.A. & ESPINOZA, M. & HEUPEL, M.R. & TOBIN, A.J. (2013)The role of non-resident sharks in shaping coral reef communities. Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 148 
STRAUBE, N. & LI, C. & CORRIGAN, S. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2013) Molecular phylogeny of Squaliformes: targeted gene capturing methods allow insights into the phylogeny and evolution of dogfish sharks Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 24 
SUGIYAMA, I. & HORII, Y. & OHIZUMI, H. (2013) Relationship between diet composition of pelagic sharks and oceanographic condition around Hachijo Island, Izu Archipelago, Japan Abstract. 9th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference (IPFC), Abstracts: 150 


CAIRA, J.N. & MARQUES, F.P.L. & JENSEN, K. & KUCHTA, R. & IVANOV, V. (2013) Phylogenetic analysis and reconfiguration of genera in the cestode order Diphyllidea. International Journal for Parasitology, 43 (8): 621–639  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.03.001
HASELI, M. (2013) Trypanorhynch cestodes from elasmobranchs from the Gulf of Oman, with the description of Prochristianella garshaspi n. sp. (Eutetrarhynchidae).Systematic Parasitology, 85 (3): 271-279   http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-013-9425-8


ADOLFSSEN, J. & WARD, D.J. (2013) Neoselachians from the Danian (Early Paleocene) of Denmark. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2012.0123
CAPPETTA, H. & GAYET, M. (2013) A new elasmobranch genus (Myliobatiformes, Dasyatoidea) from the Danian of Potosí (Bolivia). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 269 (3): 285-290   http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2013/0351
COOK, T.D. & WILSON, M.V.H. & MURRAY, A.M. & PLINT, A.G. & NEWBREY, M.G. & EVERHART, M.J. (2013) A high latitude euselachian assemblage from the early Turonian of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 11 (5): 555-587   http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14772019.2012.707990
FISCHER, J. & LICHT, M. & SCHNEIDER, J.W. & KRIWET, J. (2013) Stratigraphic record, producer assignment and phylogeny of chondrichthyan egg capsule morphotypes. Poster. 6th International Meeting on Mesozoic Fishes – Diversification and Diversity Patterns, Vienna, Austria August 4th-10th   http://dx.doi.org/
FISCHER, J. & REICH, M. (2013) On the Early Cretaceous chondrichthyan egg capsule Palaeoxyris jugleri (von Ettingshausen) also known as Spirangium. In: SCHWARZ, C. & KRIWET, J. (editors): 6th International Meeting on Mesozoic Fishes – Diversification and Diversity Patterns, Vienna, Austria August 4th-10th, 2013: 24  http://dx.doi.org/  
ITANO, W.M. & LUCAS, S.G. (2013) The youngest record of Carcharopsis (Chondrichthyes) from the Pennsylvanian of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Palaeoworld, in press   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palwor.2013.07.003  
KITAMURA, N. (2013) “Carcharias” amonensis (Chondrichthyes, Odontaspididae) from the Upper Cretaceous Mifune Group in Kumamoto, Japan. Paleontological Research, 17 (3): 230-235   http://dx.doi.org/10.2517/1342-8144-17.3.230  
KOGAN, I. & FISCHER, J. & VOIGT, S. & SCHNEIDER, J.W. & SPINDLER, F. (2013) The ichthyofauna of the non-marine Triassic Madygen Formation (Southwest Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). Abstract. In: SCHWARZ, C. & KRIWET, J. (editors): 6th International Meeting on Mesozoic Fishes – Diversification and Diversity Patterns, Vienna, Austria August 4th-10th, 2013: 40   http://dx.doi.org/  
PLA, C. & MÁRQUEZ-ALIAGA, A. & BOTELLA, H. (2013) The Chondrichthyan Fauna from the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) of the Iberian Range (Spain). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33 (4): 770-785   http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/039.033.0414  
POTVIN-LEDUC, D. & CLOUTIER, R. & LANDING, E. & VAN ALLER HERNICK, L. & MANNOLINI, F. (2013) Middle Devonian (Givetian) sharks from Cairo, New York (USA): Evidence of early cosmopolitanism. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2012.0101  
WILSON, A.E. & NEWBREY, M.G. & BRINKMAN, D.B. & COOK, T.D. & NEUMAN, A.G. (2013) Age and growth in Myledaphus bipartitus, a Late Cretaceous freshwater guitarfish from Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 50 (9): 930-944  http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2013-0001  


source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130726074238.htm 

Fossil Shows Fish Had Sucker On Its Back

July 26, 2013 — A 30 million year-old fossil has revealed how remoras -- also called sharksuckers -- evolved the sucker that enables them to stick to other fishes and 'hitch a ride'.

Previous evidence, such as the segmented structure of the sucker and how it develops in a similar way to fins in normal fish, led scientists to believe that it must be a modified dorsal fin -- the fin located on the back of normal fishes. But the evolutionary steps that led from fin to sucker were a mystery.

Now a team led by scientists from Oxford University and London's Natural History Museum has studied an early fossil remora and found that it evolved a fully-functioning sucker -- 'adhesion disc' -- on its back. It was only later in the evolutionary history of remoras that the sucker migrated to the top of the head where it is found in all remoras alive today.

A report of the research is published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

'The remora sucker is a truly amazing anatomical specialisation but, strange as it may seem, it evolved from a spiny fin,' said Dr Matt Friedman of Oxford University's Department of Earth Sciences, lead author of the report. 'In this fossil the fin is clearly modified as a disc but is found on the back of the fish. It enables us to say that first fin spines on the back broadened to form wide segments of a suction disc. After the disc evolved, it migrated to the skull, and it was there that individual segments became divided in two, the number of segments increased, and a row of spines were developed on the back of individual segments.'

Modern remoras use their sucker to fasten themselves to hosts including whales, turtles, and sharks. The researchers have shown that the fossil remora (†Opisthomyzon), dating from the Oligocene period and unearthed in Switzerland, falls outside the branch on the evolutionary tree occupied by all living remoras. As such it preserves primitive aspects of the shape and construction of the adhesion disc not found in modern remoras, all of which share discs that are broadly similar in construction.

'It's exciting that fossil fish from the Natural History Museum were so crucial to this study, and shows the important value of our collections for scientific research,' said Dr Zerina Johanson, palaeontologist at London's Natural History Museum. 'Following painstaking preparation by our fossil preparator, Mark Graham, we were able to clearly see several important features of the disc in the fossil, for example that it's much shorter than the disc in living remoras, with fewer segments.'

'One of the remarkable things we've learned about modern fishes is that some creatures that look very different, for example pufferfishes and anglerfishes, are actually very closely related,' said Dr Friedman. 'It's through fossils like this one, which preserve body plans and structures that have been pruned from the evolutionary tree by extinction, that we can unravel how they diverged from one another to assume the very different forms we see today.'


Journal Reference:

  1. M. Friedman, Z. Johanson, R. C. Harrington, T. J. Near, M. R. Graham. An early fossil remora (Echeneoidea) reveals the evolutionary assembly of the adhesion disc.Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2013; 280 (1766): 20131200 DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1200

source: http://www.thestate.com/2013/08/17/2919421/scientists-discover-new-shark.html

Scientists discover new shark species off SC coast

By SAMMY FRETWELL — The State of Columbia

COLUMBIA, S.C. — Scientists have discovered a new species of shark in the ocean off South Carolina and have named it for the region where it was found.

The "Carolina hammerhead," thought to reach 11 feet long and weigh about 400 pounds, has been identified cruising the waters at Bull's Bay north of Charleston, St. Helena Sound near Beaufort and in the Charleston harbor.

But biologists suspect these hammerheads occur worldwide, since evidence of them has been found in the past from Brazil to the Indian Ocean. The number of Carolina hammerheads is thought to be small.

"It is a distinct species," said William "Trey" Driggers, a marine scientist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's fisheries division.

Driggers, a 45-year-old Sumter native and Clemson University graduate, was among a team of scientists with NOAA, the University of South Carolina, the University of New Orleans and the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources who made the discovery after more than a decade of research.

Much of the work was done in the laboratory of USC professor Joseph Quattro, he said. Veterinarians in Columbia also collaborated on the discovery.

Driggers said it's almost impossible to tell the difference between a Carolina hammerhead and the well-known scalloped hammerhead — except for one major distinction: the newly identified species has fewer vertebrae than its shark cousins.

Carolina hammerheads have 83 to 91 vertebrae, while scalloped hammerheads have 92 to 99 vertebrae.

While the distinction between scalloped and Carolina hammerheads is subtle, NOAA officials say it's significant to conservation of the species. Scalloped hammerhead numbers are dwindling in some areas, so Carolina hammerhead numbers would be even fewer, they said.

Evidence of a hammerhead with fewer vertebrae dates to a single reference in a 1967 research paper, but only in the past decade have scientists obtained more detailed information. Recently, they concluded that the Carolina hammerhead is separate from the scalloped hammerhead.

Some 56 sharks used to identify the Carolina hammerhead were all collected off the South Carolina coast.

Carolina and scalloped hammerheads are the second largest hammerhead sharks found in Palmetto State waters, behind the great hammerhead. The animals are distinguished by their wide, anvil-like heads.

Information from: The State, http://www.thestate.com

New Shark

FOR RELEASE SATURDAY, AUGUST 17, 2013, AT 12:01 A.M. EDT - This image provided by NOAA Fisheries shows a new species of hammerhead shark, the Carolina hammerhead. The "Carolina hammerhead," thought to reach 11 feet long and weigh about 400 pounds, has been identified cruising the waters at Bull's Bay north of Charleston, St. Helena Sound near Beaufort and in the Charleston harbor. (AP Photo/NOAA Fisheries via The State) ALL LOCAL MEDIA OUT,


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